Lee Benhur

Title(s)Professor, Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
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    Other Positions
    Title(s)Professor, Microbiology Immunology & Molecular Genetics

    Title(s)Attending Physician, Transfusion Medicine & Blood Banking

    Title(s)Faculty, Cellular and Molecular Pathology PhD Program

    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    Efficient Sendai virus mediated CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing to protect hematopoietic stem cells from HIV
    NIH/NIAID R01AI138921Jun 11, 2018 - May 31, 2023
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator
    Tropism, pathogenicity, and potential for zoonotic spillover of emergent henipa- and henipa-like viruses
    NIH/NIAID R01AI123449Sep 26, 2016 - Aug 31, 2021
    Role: Principal Investigator
    SUMO and ubiquitin modifications in henipavirus matrix trafficking and function
    NIH/NIAID R01AI125536Jun 24, 2016 - May 31, 2021
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Functional interrogation of paramyxovirus genomes with efficient reverse genetics
    NIH/NIAID R21AI115226Dec 1, 2014 - Nov 30, 2016
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Quantifying differential CD4 and CCR5 usage patterns amongst HIV-1/SIV strains
    NIH/NIAID R21AI092218Jun 1, 2010 - May 31, 2012
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Broad spectrum therapeutics that target the viral membrane
    NIH/NIAID U01AI082100May 1, 2009 - Apr 30, 2014
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Envelope-receptor interactions in Nipah and Hendra virus pathobiology
    NIH/NIAID R01AI069317Feb 1, 2007 - Jan 31, 2012
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Small Molecule Inhibitors of Nipah and Hendra Virus Infection
    NIH/NIAID U01AI070495Aug 1, 2006 - Jul 31, 2010
    Role: Principal Investigator
    A reverse genetic system for the study of Nipah Virus
    NIH/NIAID R21AI059051May 1, 2004 - Apr 30, 2006
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Peptidomimics of DC-SIGN binding structures on gp120
    NIH/NIAID R21AI055305Apr 1, 2003 - Mar 31, 2005
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Studies on DC-SIGN Interactions with HIV and SIV
    NIH/NIAID R01AI052021Aug 1, 2002 - Jul 31, 2008
    Role: Principal Investigator
    NIH/NHLBI K08HL003923Sep 30, 1998 - Aug 31, 2003
    Role: Principal Investigator

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Kumar N, Kulkarni DD, Lee B, Kaushik R, Bhatia S, Sood R, Pateriya AK, Bhat S, Singh VP. Evolution of Codon Usage Bias in Henipaviruses Is Governed by Natural Selection and Is Host-Specific. Viruses. 2018 11 01; 10(11). PMID: 30388838.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Rissanen I, Ahmed AA, Azarm K, Beaty S, Hong P, Nambulli S, Duprex WP, Lee B, Bowden TA. Idiosyncratic M├▓jiang virus attachment glycoprotein directs a host-cell entry pathway distinct from genetically related henipaviruses. Nat Commun. 2017 07 12; 8:16060. PMID: 28699636.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Bharaj P, Wang YE, Dawes BE, Yun TE, Park A, Yen B, Basler CF, Freiberg AN, Lee B, Rajsbaum R. The Matrix Protein of Nipah Virus Targets the E3-Ubiquitin Ligase TRIM6 to Inhibit the IKKe Kinase-Mediated Type-I IFN Antiviral Response. PLoS Pathog. 2016 09; 12(9):e1005880. PMID: 27622505.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Park A, Yun T, Vigant F, Pernet O, Won ST, Dawes BE, Bartkowski W, Freiberg AN, Lee B. Nipah Virus C Protein Recruits Tsg101 to Promote the Efficient Release of Virus in an ESCRT-Dependent Pathway. PLoS Pathog. 2016 05; 12(5):e1005659. PMID: 27203423.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Zeltina A, Bowden TA, Lee B. Emerging Paramyxoviruses: Receptor Tropism and Zoonotic Potential. PLoS Pathog. 2016 Feb; 12(2):e1005390. PMID: 26915013; PMCID: PMC4767434.
    6. Park A, Yun T, Hill TE, Ikegami T, Juelich TL, Smith JK, Zhang L, Freiberg AN, Lee B. Optimized P2A for reporter gene insertion into Nipah virus results in efficient ribosomal skipping and wild-type lethality. J Gen Virol. 2016 Apr; 97(4):839-43. PMID: 26781134; PMCID: PMC4854364 [Available on 04/01/17].
    7. Webb NE, Lee B. Quantifying CD4/CCR5 Usage Efficiency of HIV-1 Env Using the Affinofile System. Methods Mol Biol. 2016; 1354:3-20. PMID: 26714701.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Xu K, Chan YP, Bradel-Tretheway B, Akyol-Ataman Z, Zhu Y, Dutta S, Yan L, Feng Y, Wang LF, Skiniotis G, Lee B, Zhou ZH, Broder CC, Aguilar HC, Nikolov DB. Crystal Structure of the Pre-fusion Nipah Virus Fusion Glycoprotein Reveals a Novel Hexamer-of-Trimers Assembly. PLoS Pathog. 2015 Dec; 11(12):e1005322. PMID: 26646856.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Webb NE, Montefiori DC, Lee B. Dose-response curve slope helps predict therapeutic potency and breadth of HIV broadly neutralizing antibodies. Nat Commun. 2015 Sep 29; 6:8443. PMID: 26416571; PMCID: PMC4588098.
    10. Azhibekov T, Soleymani S, Lee BH, Noori S, Seri I. Hemodynamic monitoring of the critically ill neonate: An eye on the future. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med. 2015 Aug; 20(4):246-54. PMID: 25841985.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Lee B, Pernet O, Ahmed AA, Zeltina A, Beaty SM, Bowden TA. Molecular recognition of human ephrinB2 cell surface receptor by an emergent African henipavirus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 Apr 28; 112(17):E2156-65. PMID: 25825759.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Pentecost M, Vashisht AA, Lester T, Voros T, Beaty SM, Park A, Wang YE, Yun TE, Freiberg AN, Wohlschlegel JA, Lee B. Evidence for ubiquitin-regulated nuclear and subnuclear trafficking among Paramyxovirinae matrix proteins. PLoS Pathog. 2015 Mar; 11(3):e1004739. PMID: 25782006; PMCID: PMC4363627.
    13. Garner OB, Yun T, Pernet O, Aguilar HC, Park A, Bowden TA, Freiberg AN, Lee B, Baum LG. Timing of galectin-1 exposure differentially modulates Nipah virus entry and syncytium formation in endothelial cells. J Virol. 2015 Mar; 89(5):2520-9. PMID: 25505064.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Pernet O, Schneider BS, Beaty SM, LeBreton M, Yun TE, Park A, Zachariah TT, Bowden TA, Hitchens P, Ramirez CM, Daszak P, Mazet J, Freiberg AN, Wolfe ND, Lee B. Evidence for henipavirus spillover into human populations in Africa. Nat Commun. 2014 Nov 18; 5:5342. PMID: 25405640.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Yun T, Park A, Hill TE, Pernet O, Beaty SM, Juelich TL, Smith JK, Zhang L, Wang YE, Vigant F, Gao J, Wu P, Lee B, Freiberg AN. Efficient reverse genetics reveals genetic determinants of budding and fusogenic differences between Nipah and Hendra viruses and enables real-time monitoring of viral spread in small animal models of henipavirus infection. J Virol. 2015 Jan 15; 89(2):1242-53. PMID: 25392218; PMCID: PMC4300668.
    16. Baum LG, Garner OB, Schaefer K, Lee B. Microbe-Host Interactions are Positively and Negatively Regulated by Galectin-Glycan Interactions. Front Immunol. 2014; 5:284. PMID: 24995007; PMCID: PMC4061488.
    17. Park A, Won ST, Pentecost M, Bartkowski W, Lee B. CRISPR/Cas9 allows efficient and complete knock-in of a destabilization domain-tagged essential protein in a human cell line, allowing rapid knockdown of protein function. PLoS One. 2014; 9(4):e95101. PMID: 24743236; PMCID: PMC3990584.
    18. Pernet O, Beaty S, Lee B. Functional rectification of the newly described African henipavirus fusion glycoprotein (Gh-M74a). J Virol. 2014 May; 88(9):5171-6. PMID: 24522929; PMCID: PMC3993810.
    19. Vigant F, Hollmann A, Lee J, Santos NC, Jung ME, Lee B. The rigid amphipathic fusion inhibitor dUY11 acts through photosensitization of viruses. J Virol. 2014 Feb; 88(3):1849-53. PMID: 24284320; PMCID: PMC3911596.
    20. Ping LH, Joseph SB, Anderson JA, Abrahams MR, Salazar-Gonzalez JF, Kincer LP, Treurnicht FK, Arney L, Ojeda S, Zhang M, Keys J, Potter EL, Chu H, Moore P, Salazar MG, Iyer S, Jabara C, Kirchherr J, Mapanje C, Ngandu N, Seoighe C, Hoffman I, Gao F, Tang Y, Labranche C, Lee B, Saville A, Vermeulen M, Fiscus S, Morris L, Karim SA, Haynes BF, Shaw GM, Korber BT, Hahn BH, Cohen MS, Montefiori D, Williamson C, Swanstrom R. Comparison of viral Env proteins from acute and chronic infections with subtype C human immunodeficiency virus type 1 identifies differences in glycosylation and CCR5 utilization and suggests a new strategy for immunogen design. J Virol. 2013 Jul; 87(13):7218-33. PMID: 23616655; PMCID: PMC3700278.
    21. Vigant F, Lee J, Hollmann A, Tanner LB, Akyol Ataman Z, Yun T, Shui G, Aguilar HC, Zhang D, Meriwether D, Roman-Sosa G, Robinson LR, Juelich TL, Buczkowski H, Chou S, Castanho MA, Wolf MC, Smith JK, Banyard A, Kielian M, Reddy S, Wenk MR, Selke M, Santos NC, Freiberg AN, Jung ME, Lee B. A mechanistic paradigm for broad-spectrum antivirals that target virus-cell fusion. PLoS Pathog. 2013; 9(4):e1003297. PMID: 23637597; PMCID: PMC3630091.
    22. Liu SY, Aliyari R, Chikere K, Li G, Marsden MD, Smith JK, Pernet O, Guo H, Nusbaum R, Zack JA, Freiberg AN, Su L, Lee B, Cheng G. Interferon-inducible cholesterol-25-hydroxylase broadly inhibits viral entry by production of 25-hydroxycholesterol. Immunity. 2013 Jan 24; 38(1):92-105. PMID: 23273844; PMCID: PMC3698975.
    23. Palomares K, Vigant F, Van Handel B, Pernet O, Chikere K, Hong P, Sherman SP, Patterson M, An DS, Lowry WE, Mikkola HK, Morizono K, Pyle AD, Lee B. Nipah virus envelope-pseudotyped lentiviruses efficiently target ephrinB2-positive stem cell populations in vitro and bypass the liver sink when administered in vivo. J Virol. 2013 Feb; 87(4):2094-108. PMID: 23192877; PMCID: PMC3571488.
    24. Biering SB, Huang A, Vu AT, Robinson LR, Bradel-Tretheway B, Choi E, Lee B, Aguilar HC. N-Glycans on the Nipah virus attachment glycoprotein modulate fusion and viral entry as they protect against antibody neutralization. J Virol. 2012 Nov; 86(22):11991-2002. PMID: 22915812; PMCID: PMC3486489.
    25. Maar D, Harmon B, Chu D, Schulz B, Aguilar HC, Lee B, Negrete OA. Cysteines in the stalk of the nipah virus G glycoprotein are located in a distinct subdomain critical for fusion activation. J Virol. 2012 Jun; 86(12):6632-42. PMID: 22496210; PMCID: PMC3393546.
    26. Pernet O, Wang YE, Lee B. Henipavirus receptor usage and tropism. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2012; 359:59-78. PMID: 22695915; PMCID: PMC3587688.
    27. Wang YE, Pernet O, Lee B. Regulation of the nucleocytoplasmic trafficking of viral and cellular proteins by ubiquitin and small ubiquitin-related modifiers. Biol Cell. 2012 Mar; 104(3):121-38. PMID: 22188262; PMCID: PMC3625690.
    28. Lee B. Containing the contagion: treating the virus that inspired the film. Sci Transl Med. 2011 Oct 19; 3(105):105fs6. PMID: 22013121; PMCID: PMC3345275.
    29. Bi S, Hong PW, Lee B, Baum LG. Galectin-9 binding to cell surface protein disulfide isomerase regulates the redox environment to enhance T-cell migration and HIV entry. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Jun 28; 108(26):10650-5. PMID: 21670307; PMCID: PMC3127870.
    30. Vigant F, Lee B. Hendra and nipah infection: pathology, models and potential therapies. Infect Disord Drug Targets. 2011 Jun; 11(3):315-36. PMID: 21488828; PMCID: PMC3253017.
    31. Morizono K, Xie Y, Olafsen T, Lee B, Dasgupta A, Wu AM, Chen IS. The soluble serum protein Gas6 bridges virion envelope phosphatidylserine to the TAM receptor tyrosine kinase Axl to mediate viral entry. Cell Host Microbe. 2011 Apr 21; 9(4):286-98. PMID: 21501828; PMCID: PMC3095825.
    32. Lee B, Ataman ZA. Modes of paramyxovirus fusion: a Henipavirus perspective. Trends Microbiol. 2011 Aug; 19(8):389-99. PMID: 21511478; PMCID: PMC3264399.
    33. Mirza AM, Aguilar HC, Zhu Q, Mahon PJ, Rota PA, Lee B, Iorio RM. Triggering of the newcastle disease virus fusion protein by a chimeric attachment protein that binds to Nipah virus receptors. J Biol Chem. 2011 May 20; 286(20):17851-60. PMID: 21460213; PMCID: PMC3093860.
    34. Johnson JB, Aguilar HC, Lee B, Parks GD. Interactions of human complement with virus particles containing the Nipah virus glycoproteins. J Virol. 2011 Jun; 85(12):5940-8. PMID: 21450814; PMCID: PMC3126306.
    35. Aguilar HC, Lee B. Emerging paramyxoviruses: molecular mechanisms and antiviral strategies. Expert Rev Mol Med. 2011 Feb 24; 13:e6. PMID: 21345285; PMCID: PMC3253018.
    36. Wang YE, Park A, Lake M, Pentecost M, Torres B, Yun TE, Wolf MC, Holbrook MR, Freiberg AN, Lee B. Ubiquitin-regulated nuclear-cytoplasmic trafficking of the Nipah virus matrix protein is important for viral budding. PLoS Pathog. 2010 Nov 11; 6(11):e1001186. PMID: 21085610; PMCID: PMC2978725.
    37. Vigant F, Jung M, Lee B. Positive reinforcement for viruses. Chem Biol. 2010 Oct 29; 17(10):1049-51. PMID: 21035726; PMCID: PMC2998992.
    38. Garner OB, Aguilar HC, Fulcher JA, Levroney EL, Harrison R, Wright L, Robinson LR, Aspericueta V, Panico M, Haslam SM, Morris HR, Dell A, Lee B, Baum LG. Endothelial galectin-1 binds to specific glycans on nipah virus fusion protein and inhibits maturation, mobility, and function to block syncytia formation. PLoS Pathog. 2010 Jul 15; 6(7):e1000993. PMID: 20657665; PMCID: PMC2904771.
    39. Aguilar HC, Aspericueta V, Robinson LR, Aanensen KE, Lee B. A quantitative and kinetic fusion protein-triggering assay can discern distinct steps in the nipah virus membrane fusion cascade. J Virol. 2010 Aug; 84(16):8033-41. PMID: 20519383; PMCID: PMC2916531.
    40. Morizono K, Ku A, Xie Y, Harui A, Kung SK, Roth MD, Lee B, Chen IS. Redirecting lentiviral vectors pseudotyped with Sindbis virus-derived envelope proteins to DC-SIGN by modification of N-linked glycans of envelope proteins. J Virol. 2010 Jul; 84(14):6923-34. PMID: 20484510; PMCID: PMC2898243.
    41. Wolf MC, Freiberg AN, Zhang T, Akyol-Ataman Z, Grock A, Hong PW, Li J, Watson NF, Fang AQ, Aguilar HC, Porotto M, Honko AN, Damoiseaux R, Miller JP, Woodson SE, Chantasirivisal S, Fontanes V, Negrete OA, Krogstad P, Dasgupta A, Moscona A, Hensley LE, Whelan SP, Faull KF, Holbrook MR, Jung ME, Lee B. A broad-spectrum antiviral targeting entry of enveloped viruses. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Feb 16; 107(7):3157-62. PMID: 20133606; PMCID: PMC2840368.
    42. Shimizu S, Hong P, Arumugam B, Pokomo L, Boyer J, Koizumi N, Kittipongdaja P, Chen A, Bristol G, Galic Z, Zack JA, Yang O, Chen IS, Lee B, An DS. A highly efficient short hairpin RNA potently down-regulates CCR5 expression in systemic lymphoid organs in the hu-BLT mouse model. Blood. 2010 Feb 25; 115(8):1534-44. PMID: 20018916; PMCID: PMC2830759.
    43. Liang M, Morizono K, Pariente N, Kamata M, Lee B, Chen IS. Targeted transduction via CD4 by a lentiviral vector uses a clathrin-mediated entry pathway. J Virol. 2009 Dec; 83(24):13026-31. PMID: 19793825; PMCID: PMC2786851.
    44. Johnston SH, Lobritz MA, Nguyen S, Lassen K, Delair S, Posta F, Bryson YJ, Arts EJ, Chou T, Lee B. A quantitative affinity-profiling system that reveals distinct CD4/CCR5 usage patterns among human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and simian immunodeficiency virus strains. J Virol. 2009 Nov; 83(21):11016-26. PMID: 19692480; PMCID: PMC2772777.
    45. Wolf MC, Wang Y, Freiberg AN, Aguilar HC, Holbrook MR, Lee B. A catalytically and genetically optimized beta-lactamase-matrix based assay for sensitive, specific, and higher throughput analysis of native henipavirus entry characteristics. Virol J. 2009 Jul 31; 6:119. PMID: 19646266; PMCID: PMC2727953.
    46. Fulcher JA, Chang MH, Wang S, Almazan T, Hashimi ST, Eriksson AU, Wen X, Pang M, Baum LG, Singh RR, Lee B. Galectin-1 co-clusters CD43/CD45 on dendritic cells and induces cell activation and migration through Syk and protein kinase C signaling. J Biol Chem. 2009 Sep 25; 284(39):26860-70. PMID: 19635795; PMCID: PMC2785374.
    47. Hashimi ST, Fulcher JA, Chang MH, Gov L, Wang S, Lee B. MicroRNA profiling identifies miR-34a and miR-21 and their target genes JAG1 and WNT1 in the coordinate regulation of dendritic cell differentiation. Blood. 2009 Jul 09; 114(2):404-14. PMID: 19398721; PMCID: PMC2927176.
    48. Tamin A, Harcourt BH, Lo MK, Roth JA, Wolf MC, Lee B, Weingartl H, Audonnet JC, Bellini WJ, Rota PA. Development of a neutralization assay for Nipah virus using pseudotype particles. J Virol Methods. 2009 Sep; 160(1-2):1-6. PMID: 19559943; PMCID: PMC2704486.
    49. Hong P, Ninonuevo MR, Lee B, Lebrilla C, Bode L. Human milk oligosaccharides reduce HIV-1-gp120 binding to dendritic cell-specific ICAM3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN). Br J Nutr. 2009 Feb; 101(4):482-6. PMID: 19230080.
      View in: PubMed
    50. Aguilar HC, Ataman ZA, Aspericueta V, Fang AQ, Stroud M, Negrete OA, Kammerer RA, Lee B. A novel receptor-induced activation site in the Nipah virus attachment glycoprotein (G) involved in triggering the fusion glycoprotein (F). J Biol Chem. 2009 Jan 16; 284(3):1628-35. PMID: 19019819; PMCID: PMC2615506.
    51. Lee B, Ataman ZA, Jin L. Evil versus 'eph-ective' use of ephrin-B2. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2008 Jun; 15(6):540-2. PMID: 18523462.
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    52. Nassanian H, Sanchez AM, Lo A, Bradley KA, Lee B. Efficient construction of an inverted minimal H1 promoter driven siRNA expression cassette: facilitation of promoter and siRNA sequence exchange. PLoS One. 2007 Aug 22; 2(8):e767. PMID: 17712415; PMCID: PMC1942083.
    53. Negrete OA, Chu D, Aguilar HC, Lee B. Single amino acid changes in the Nipah and Hendra virus attachment glycoproteins distinguish ephrinB2 from ephrinB3 usage. J Virol. 2007 Oct; 81(19):10804-14. PMID: 17652392; PMCID: PMC2045465.
    54. Hong PW, Nguyen S, Young S, Su SV, Lee B. Identification of the optimal DC-SIGN binding site on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120. J Virol. 2007 Aug; 81(15):8325-36. PMID: 17522223; PMCID: PMC1951277.
    55. Lee B. Envelope-receptor interactions in Nipah virus pathobiology. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2007 Apr; 1102:51-65. PMID: 17470911.
      View in: PubMed
    56. Aguilar HC, Matreyek KA, Choi DY, Filone CM, Young S, Lee B. Polybasic KKR motif in the cytoplasmic tail of Nipah virus fusion protein modulates membrane fusion by inside-out signaling. J Virol. 2007 May; 81(9):4520-32. PMID: 17301148; PMCID: PMC1900187.
    57. Maldonado-Arocho FJ, Fulcher JA, Lee B, Bradley KA. Anthrax oedema toxin induces anthrax toxin receptor expression in monocyte-derived cells. Mol Microbiol. 2006 Jul; 61(2):324-37. PMID: 16856939.
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    58. Fulcher JA, Hashimi ST, Levroney EL, Pang M, Gurney KB, Baum LG, Lee B. Galectin-1-matured human monocyte-derived dendritic cells have enhanced migration through extracellular matrix. J Immunol. 2006 Jul 01; 177(1):216-26. PMID: 16785517.
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    59. Aguilar HC, Matreyek KA, Filone CM, Hashimi ST, Levroney EL, Negrete OA, Bertolotti-Ciarlet A, Choi DY, McHardy I, Fulcher JA, Su SV, Wolf MC, Kohatsu L, Baum LG, Lee B. N-glycans on Nipah virus fusion protein protect against neutralization but reduce membrane fusion and viral entry. J Virol. 2006 May; 80(10):4878-89. PMID: 16641279; PMCID: PMC1472062.
    60. Negrete OA, Wolf MC, Aguilar HC, Enterlein S, Wang W, M├╝hlberger E, Su SV, Bertolotti-Ciarlet A, Flick R, Lee B. Two key residues in ephrinB3 are critical for its use as an alternative receptor for Nipah virus. PLoS Pathog. 2006 Feb; 2(2):e7. PMID: 16477309; PMCID: PMC1361355.
    61. Negrete OA, Levroney EL, Aguilar HC, Bertolotti-Ciarlet A, Nazarian R, Tajyar S, Lee B. EphrinB2 is the entry receptor for Nipah virus, an emergent deadly paramyxovirus. Nature. 2005 Jul 21; 436(7049):401-5. PMID: 16007075.
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    62. Levroney EL, Aguilar HC, Fulcher JA, Kohatsu L, Pace KE, Pang M, Gurney KB, Baum LG, Lee B. Novel innate immune functions for galectin-1: galectin-1 inhibits cell fusion by Nipah virus envelope glycoproteins and augments dendritic cell secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. J Immunol. 2005 Jul 01; 175(1):413-20. PMID: 15972675; PMCID: PMC4428613.
    63. Gurney KB, Elliott J, Nassanian H, Song C, Soilleux E, McGowan I, Anton PA, Lee B. Binding and transfer of human immunodeficiency virus by DC-SIGN+ cells in human rectal mucosa. J Virol. 2005 May; 79(9):5762-73. PMID: 15827191; PMCID: PMC1082722.
    64. Morizono K, Xie Y, Ringpis GE, Johnson M, Nassanian H, Lee B, Wu L, Chen IS. Lentiviral vector retargeting to P-glycoprotein on metastatic melanoma through intravenous injection. Nat Med. 2005 Mar; 11(3):346-52. PMID: 15711560.
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    65. Su SV, Hong P, Baik S, Negrete OA, Gurney KB, Lee B. DC-SIGN binds to HIV-1 glycoprotein 120 in a distinct but overlapping fashion compared with ICAM-2 and ICAM-3. J Biol Chem. 2004 Apr 30; 279(18):19122-32. PMID: 14970226.
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    66. Su SV, Gurney KB, Lee B. Sugar and spice: viral envelope-DC-SIGN interactions in HIV pathogenesis. Curr HIV Res. 2003 Jan; 1(1):87-99. PMID: 15043214.
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    67. Hong PW, Flummerfelt KB, de Parseval A, Gurney K, Elder JH, Lee B. Human immunodeficiency virus envelope (gp120) binding to DC-SIGN and primary dendritic cells is carbohydrate dependent but does not involve 2G12 or cyanovirin binding sites: implications for structural analyses of gp120-DC-SIGN binding. J Virol. 2002 Dec; 76(24):12855-65. PMID: 12438611; PMCID: PMC136699.