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Pothoulakis Charalabos

Title(s)Professor, Digestive Diseases/Gastroenterology
Phone310-825-9104
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    Other Positions
    Title(s)Eli and Edythe Broad Chair, Medicine


    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    Characterization and Targeting of MiR-24 Network in Colitis
    NIH/NIDDK R01DK110003Aug 1, 2016 - Jul 31, 2021
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Role of Corticotropin Releasing Hormone in Intestinal Inflammation
    NIH/NIDDK R01DK101671Aug 1, 2015 - Jul 31, 2018
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Chronic stress mediates fat-related changes in insulin signaling and gut motility
    NIH/NIDDK RC1DK086150Sep 30, 2009 - Aug 31, 2011
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator
    Toll-like receptors and intestinal inflammation
    NIH/NIDDK R01DK072417Jul 1, 2006 - Apr 30, 2012
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Mechanisms of Neurotensin in Intestinal Inflammation
    NIH/NIDDK R01DK060729Dec 1, 2001 - Aug 31, 2018
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Role of Substance P in Intestinal Inflammation
    NIH/NIDDK R01DK047343Sep 15, 1994 - Jul 31, 2015
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Barrier Function of the GI Tract in Health and Disease
    NIH/NIDDK P01DK033506Apr 1, 1984 - Aug 31, 2016
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Soroosh A, Rankin CR, Polytarchou C, Lokhandwala ZA, Patel A, Chang L, Pothoulakis C, Iliopoulos D, Padua DM. microRNA-24 Is Elevated in Ulcerative Colitis Patients and Regulates Intestinal Epithelial Barrier Function. Am J Pathol. 2019 Jun 17. PMID: 31220450.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Rankin CR, Lokhandwala ZA, Huang R, Pekow J, Pothoulakis C, Padua D. Linear and circular CDKN2B-AS1 expression is associated with Inflammatory Bowel Disease and participates in intestinal barrier formation. Life Sci. 2019 Jun 14; 116571. PMID: 31207308.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Rankin CR, Treger J, Faure-Kumar E, Benhammou J, Anisman-Posner D, Bollinger AE, Pothoulakis C, Padua DM. Overexpressing Long Noncoding RNAs Using Gene-activating CRISPR. J Vis Exp. 2019 Mar 01; (145). PMID: 30882798.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Huang J, Kelly CP, Bakirtzi K, Villafuerte Gálvez JA, Lyras D, Mileto SJ, Larcombe S, Xu H, Yang X, Shields KS, Zhu W, Zhang Y, Goldsmith JD, Patel IJ, Hansen J, Huang M, Yla-Herttuala S, Moss AC, Paredes-Sabja D, Pothoulakis C, Shah YM, Wang J, Chen X. Clostridium difficile toxins induce VEGF-A and vascular permeability to promote disease pathogenesis. Nat Microbiol. 2019 Feb; 4(2):269-279. PMID: 30510170.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Mitchell J, Kim SJ, Koukos G, Seelmann A, Veit B, Shepard B, Blumer-Schuette S, Winter HS, Iliopoulos D, Pothoulakis C, Im E, Rhee SH. Colonic Inhibition of Phosphatase and Tensin Homolog Increases Colitogenic Bacteria, Causing Development of Colitis in Il10-/- Mice. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2018 07 12; 24(8):1718-1732. PMID: 29788382.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Rankin CR, Theodorou E, Man Law IK, Rowe L, Kokkotou E, Pekow J, Wang J, Martín MG, Pothoulakis C, Padua D. Identification of novel mRNAs and lncRNAs associated with mouse experimental colitis and human inflammatory bowel disease. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2018 Nov 01; 315(5):G722-G733. PMID: 29953254.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Videlock EJ, Mahurkar-Joshi S, Hoffman JM, Iliopoulos D, Pothoulakis C, Mayer EA, Chang L. Sigmoid colon mucosal gene expression supports alterations of neuronal signaling in irritable bowel syndrome with constipation. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2018 Jul 01; 315(1):G140-G157. PMID: 29565640.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Hoffman JM, Sideri A, Ruiz JJ, Stavrakis D, Shih DQ, Turner JR, Pothoulakis C, Karagiannides I. Mesenteric Adipose-derived Stromal Cells From Crohn's Disease Patients Induce Protective Effects in Colonic Epithelial Cells and Mice With Colitis. Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2018; 6(1):1-16. PMID: 29928668.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Koon HW, Wang J, Mussatto CC, Ortiz C, Lee EC, Tran DH, Chen X, Kelly CP, Pothoulakis C. Fidaxomicin and OP-1118 Inhibit Clostridium difficile Toxin A- and B-Mediated Inflammatory Responses via Inhibition of NF-?B Activity. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2018 01; 62(1). PMID: 29038278.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Fang K, Law IKM, Padua D, Sideri A, Huang V, Kevil CG, Iliopoulos D, Pothoulakis C. MicroRNA-31-3p Is Involved in Substance P (SP)-Associated Inflammation in Human Colonic Epithelial Cells and Experimental Colitis. Am J Pathol. 2018 03; 188(3):586-599. PMID: 29253460.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Soroosh A, Koutsioumpa M, Pothoulakis C, Iliopoulos D. Functional role and therapeutic targeting of microRNAs in inflammatory bowel disease. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2018 02 01; 314(2):G256-G262. PMID: 29146677.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Pothoulakis C, Torre-Rojas M, Duran-Padilla MA, Gevorkian J, Zoras O, Chrysos E, Chalkiadakis G, Baritaki S. CRHR2/Ucn2 signaling is a novel regulator of miR-7/YY1/Fas circuitry contributing to reversal of colorectal cancer cell resistance to Fas-mediated apoptosis. Int J Cancer. 2018 01 15; 142(2):334-346. PMID: 28929494.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Lee Y, Choo J, Kim SJ, Heo G, Pothoulakis C, Kim YH, Im E. Analysis of endogenous lipids during intestinal wound healing. PLoS One. 2017; 12(8):e0183028. PMID: 28800645.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Law IKM, Padua DM, Iliopoulos D, Pothoulakis C. Role of G protein-coupled receptors-microRNA interactions in gastrointestinal pathophysiology. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2017 Nov 01; 313(5):G361-G372. PMID: 28774868.
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    15. Lee Y, Jo J, Chung HY, Pothoulakis C, Im E. Endocannabinoids in the gastrointestinal tract. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2016 10 01; 311(4):G655-G666. PMID: 27538961.
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    16. Koon HW, Su B, Xu C, Mussatto CC, Tran DH, Lee EC, Ortiz C, Wang J, Lee JE, Ho S, Chen X, Kelly CP, Pothoulakis C. Probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 prevents outbreak-associated Clostridium difficile-associated cecal inflammation in hamsters. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2016 10 01; 311(4):G610-G623. PMID: 27514478.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Padua D, Mahurkar-Joshi S, Law IK, Polytarchou C, Vu JP, Pisegna JR, Shih D, Iliopoulos D, Pothoulakis C. A long noncoding RNA signature for ulcerative colitis identifies IFNG-AS1 as an enhancer of inflammation. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2016 09 01; 311(3):G446-57. PMID: 27492330.
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    18. Mashaghi A, Marmalidou A, Tehrani M, Grace PM, Pothoulakis C, Dana R. Neuropeptide substance P and the immune response. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2016 11; 73(22):4249-4264. PMID: 27314883.
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    19. Bakirtzi K, Law IK, Xue X, Iliopoulos D, Shah YM, Pothoulakis C. Neurotensin Promotes the Development of Colitis and Intestinal Angiogenesis via Hif-1a-miR-210 Signaling. J Immunol. 2016 05 15; 196(10):4311-21. PMID: 27076683.
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    20. Giannogonas P, Apostolou A, Manousopoulou A, Theocharis S, Macari SA, Psarras S, Garbis SD, Pothoulakis C, Karalis KP. Identification of a novel interaction between corticotropin releasing hormone (Crh) and macroautophagy. Sci Rep. 2016 Mar 18; 6:23342. PMID: 26987580; PMCID: PMC4796911.
    21. Law IK, Jensen D, Bunnett NW, Pothoulakis C. Neurotensin-induced miR-133a expression regulates neurotensin receptor 1 recycling through its downstream target aftiphilin. Sci Rep. 2016 Feb 23; 6:22195. PMID: 26902265; PMCID: PMC4763298.
    22. Yuan PQ, Wu SV, Pothoulakis C, Taché Y. Urocortins and CRF receptor type 2 variants in the male rat colon: gene expression and regulation by endotoxin and anti-inflammatory effect. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2016 Mar 15; 310(6):G387-98. PMID: 26744472; PMCID: PMC4796293 [Available on 03/15/17].
    23. Kim DH, Hwang JS, Lee IH, Nam ST, Hong J, Zhang P, Lu LF, Lee J, Seok H, Pothoulakis C, Lamont JT, Kim H. The Insect Peptide CopA3 Increases Colonic Epithelial Cell Proliferation and Mucosal Barrier Function to Prevent Inflammatory Responses in the Gut. J Biol Chem. 2016 Feb 12; 291(7):3209-23. PMID: 26655716.
      View in: PubMed
    24. Padua D, Pothoulakis C. Novel approaches to treating Clostridium difficile-associated colitis. Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2016; 10(2):193-204. PMID: 26643655.
      View in: PubMed
    25. Hoffman JM, Baritaki S, Ruiz JJ, Sideri A, Pothoulakis C. Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone Receptor 2 Signaling Promotes Mucosal Repair Responses after Colitis. Am J Pathol. 2016 Jan; 186(1):134-44. PMID: 26597886; PMCID: PMC4714033 [Available on 01/01/17].
    26. Rodriguez JA, Huerta-Yepez S, Law IK, Baay-Guzman GJ, Tirado-Rodriguez B, Hoffman JM, Iliopoulos D, Hommes DW, Verspaget HW, Chang L, Pothoulakis C, Baritaki S. Diminished expression of CRHR2 in human colon cancer promotes tumor growth and EMT via persistent IL-6/Stat3 signaling. Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2015 Nov 01; 1(6):610-630. PMID: 26495412.
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    27. Rhee SH, Ma EL, Lee Y, Taché Y, Pothoulakis C, Im E. Corticotropin Releasing Hormone and Urocortin 3 Stimulate Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Expression through the cAMP/CREB Pathway. J Biol Chem. 2015 Oct 23; 290(43):26194-203. PMID: 26350463; PMCID: PMC4646269 [Available on 10/23/16].
    28. Choo J, Lee Y, Yan XJ, Noh TH, Kim SJ, Son S, Pothoulakis C, Moon HR, Jung JH, Im E. A Novel Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor (PPAR)? Agonist 2-Hydroxyethyl 5-chloro-4,5-didehydrojasmonate Exerts Anti-Inflammatory Effects in Colitis. J Biol Chem. 2015 Oct 16; 290(42):25609-19. PMID: 26342083.
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    29. Fang K, Sideri A, Law IK, Bakirtzi K, Polytarchou C, Iliopoulos D, Pothoulakis C. Identification of a novel substance P (SP)-neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R) microRNA-221-5p inflammatory network in human colonic epithelial cells. Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2015 Sep 01; 1(5):503-515. PMID: 26645045.
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    30. Bradesi S, Karagiannides I, Bakirtzi K, Joshi SM, Koukos G, Iliopoulos D, Pothoulakis C, Mayer EA. Identification of Spinal Cord MicroRNA and Gene Signatures in a Model of Chronic Stress-Induced Visceral Hyperalgesia in Rat. PLoS One. 2015; 10(7):e0130938. PMID: 26222740.
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    31. Sideri A, Bakirtzi K, Shih DQ, Koon HW, Fleshner P, Arsenescu R, Arsenescu V, Turner JR, Karagiannides I, Pothoulakis C. Substance P mediates pro-inflammatory cytokine release form mesenteric adipocytes in Inflammatory Bowel Disease patients. Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2015 Jul 01; 1(4):420-432. PMID: 26543894.
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    32. Polytarchou C, Hommes DW, Palumbo T, Hatziapostolou M, Koutsioumpa M, Koukos G, van der Meulen-de Jong AE, Oikonomopoulos A, van Deen WK, Vorvis C, Serebrennikova OB, Birli E, Choi J, Chang L, Anton PA, Tsichlis PN, Pothoulakis C, Verspaget HW, Iliopoulos D. MicroRNA214 Is Associated With Progression of Ulcerative Colitis, and Inhibition Reduces Development of Colitis and Colitis-Associated Cancer in Mice. Gastroenterology. 2015 Oct; 149(4):981-92.e11. PMID: 26055138; PMCID: PMC4584179 [Available on 10/01/16].
    33. Koukos G, Polytarchou C, Kaplan JL, Oikonomopoulos A, Ziring D, Hommes DW, Wahed R, Kokkotou E, Pothoulakis C, Winter HS, Iliopoulos D. A microRNA signature in pediatric ulcerative colitis: deregulation of the miR-4284/CXCL5 pathway in the intestinal epithelium. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2015 May; 21(5):996-1005. PMID: 25738378.
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    34. Vilisaar J, Kawabe K, Braitch M, Aram J, Furtun Y, Fahey AJ, Chopra M, Tanasescu R, Tighe PJ, Gran B, Pothoulakis C, Constantinescu CS. Reciprocal Regulation of Substance P and IL-12/IL-23 and the Associated Cytokines, IFN?/IL-17: A Perspective on the Relevance of This Interaction to Multiple Sclerosis. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol. 2015 Sep; 10(3):457-67. PMID: 25690155; PMCID: PMC4543419.
    35. Sideri A, Stavrakis D, Bowe C, Shih DQ, Fleshner P, Arsenescu V, Arsenescu R, Turner JR, Pothoulakis C, Karagiannides I. Effects of obesity on severity of colitis and cytokine expression in mouse mesenteric fat. Potential role of adiponectin receptor 1. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2015 Apr 01; 308(7):G591-604. PMID: 25591865.
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    36. Law IK, Pothoulakis C. MicroRNA-133a regulates neurotensin-associated colonic inflammation in colonic epithelial cells and experimental colitis. RNA Dis. 2015; 2(1). PMID: 26005712.
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    37. Yoo JH, Ho S, Tran DH, Cheng M, Bakirtzi K, Kukota Y, Ichikawa R, Su B, Tran DH, Hing TC, Chang I, Shih DQ, Issacson RE, Gallo RL, Fiocchi C, Pothoulakis C, Koon HW. Anti-fibrogenic effects of the anti-microbial peptide cathelicidin in murine colitis-associated fibrosis. Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2015 Jan; 1(1):55-74.e1. PMID: 25729764.
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    38. Bakirtzi K, West G, Fiocchi C, Law IK, Iliopoulos D, Pothoulakis C. The neurotensin-HIF-1a-VEGFa axis orchestrates hypoxia, colonic inflammation, and intestinal angiogenesis. Am J Pathol. 2014 Dec; 184(12):3405-14. PMID: 25307345; PMCID: PMC4258496.
    39. Law IK, Bakirtzi K, Polytarchou C, Oikonomopoulos A, Hommes D, Iliopoulos D, Pothoulakis C. Neurotensin--regulated miR-133a is involved in proinflammatory signalling in human colonic epithelial cells and in experimental colitis. Gut. 2015 Jul; 64(7):1095-104. PMID: 25112884; PMCID: PMC4422787.
    40. Jensen DD, Halls ML, Murphy JE, Canals M, Cattaruzza F, Poole DP, Lieu T, Koon HW, Pothoulakis C, Bunnett NW. Endothelin-converting enzyme 1 and ß-arrestins exert spatiotemporal control of substance P-induced inflammatory signals. J Biol Chem. 2014 Jul 18; 289(29):20283-94. PMID: 24898255; PMCID: PMC4106342.
    41. Koon HW, Ho S, Hing TC, Cheng M, Chen X, Ichikawa Y, Kelly CP, Pothoulakis C. Fidaxomicin inhibits Clostridium difficile toxin A-mediated enteritis in the mouse ileum. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2014 Aug; 58(8):4642-50. PMID: 24890583.
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    42. Im E, Jung J, Pothoulakis C, Rhee SH. Disruption of Pten speeds onset and increases severity of spontaneous colitis in Il10(-/-) mice. Gastroenterology. 2014 Sep; 147(3):667-679.e10. PMID: 24882466.
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    43. Karagiannides I, Golovatscka V, Bakirtzi K, Sideri A, Salas M, Stavrakis D, Polytarchou C, Iliopoulos D, Pothoulakis C, Bradesi S. Chronic unpredictable stress regulates visceral adipocyte-mediated glucose metabolism and inflammatory circuits in male rats. Physiol Rep. 2014; 2(5):e00284. PMID: 24819750; PMCID: PMC4098730.
    44. Vu JP, Million M, Larauche M, Luong L, Norris J, Waschek JA, Pothoulakis C, Pisegna JR, Germano PM. Inhibition of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) induces resistance to dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis in mice. J Mol Neurosci. 2014 Jan; 52(1):37-47. PMID: 24395090; PMCID: PMC4114158.
    45. Steinhoff MS, von Mentzer B, Geppetti P, Pothoulakis C, Bunnett NW. Tachykinins and their receptors: contributions to physiological control and the mechanisms of disease. Physiol Rev. 2014 Jan; 94(1):265-301. PMID: 24382888.
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    46. Bakirtzi K, Hoffman JM, Pothoulakis C. Silence Please!: siRNA approaches to tighten the intestinal barrier in vivo. Am J Pathol. 2013 Dec; 183(6):1700-1702. PMID: 24183845.
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    47. Grasberger H, Chang L, Shih W, Presson AP, Sayuk GS, Newberry RD, Karagiannides I, Pothoulakis C, Mayer E, Merchant JL. Identification of a functional TPH1 polymorphism associated with irritable bowel syndrome bowel habit subtypes. Am J Gastroenterol. 2013 Nov; 108(11):1766-74. PMID: 24060757; PMCID: PMC4067697.
    48. Koukos G, Polytarchou C, Kaplan JL, Morley-Fletcher A, Gras-Miralles B, Kokkotou E, Baril-Dore M, Pothoulakis C, Winter HS, Iliopoulos D. MicroRNA-124 regulates STAT3 expression and is down-regulated in colon tissues of pediatric patients with ulcerative colitis. Gastroenterology. 2013 Oct; 145(4):842-52.e2. PMID: 23856509; PMCID: PMC4427058.
    49. Zheng L, Zhang X, Chen J, Ichikawa R, Wallace K, Pothoulakis C, Koon HW, Targan SR, Shih DQ. Erratum: Sustained TL1A (TNFSF15) expression on both lymphoid and myeloid cells leads to mild spontaneous intestinal inflammation and fibrosis (DOI: 10.1556/EuJMI.3.2013.1.2). Eur J Microbiol Immunol (Bp). 2013 Jun; 3(2):141. PMID: 24265931; PMCID: PMC3832092.
    50. Koon HW, Shih DQ, Hing TC, Yoo JH, Ho S, Chen X, Kelly CP, Targan SR, Pothoulakis C. Human monoclonal antibodies against Clostridium difficile toxins A and B inhibit inflammatory and histologic responses to the toxins in human colon and peripheral blood monocytes. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2013 Jul; 57(7):3214-23. PMID: 23629713; PMCID: PMC3697353.
    51. Tchkonia T, Thomou T, Zhu Y, Karagiannides I, Pothoulakis C, Jensen MD, Kirkland JL. Mechanisms and metabolic implications of regional differences among fat depots. Cell Metab. 2013 May 07; 17(5):644-656. PMID: 23583168; PMCID: PMC3942783.
    52. Tuominen I, Al-Rabadi L, Stavrakis D, Karagiannides I, Pothoulakis C, Bugni JM. Diet-induced obesity promotes colon tumor development in azoxymethane-treated mice. PLoS One. 2013; 8(4):e60939. PMID: 23560112; PMCID: PMC3616169.
    53. Zheng L, Zhang X, Chen J, Ichikawa R, Wallace K, Pothoulakis C, Koon HW, Targan SR, Shih DQ. SUSTAINED TL1A (TNFSF15) EXPRESSION ON BOTH LYMPHOID AND MYELOID CELLS LEADS TO MILD SPONTANEOUS INTESTINAL INFLAMMATION AND FIBROSIS. Eur J Microbiol Immunol (Bp). 2013 Mar; 3(1):11-20. PMID: 23638306.
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    54. Ho S, Pothoulakis C, Koon HW. Antimicrobial peptides and colitis. Curr Pharm Des. 2013; 19(1):40-7. PMID: 22950497.
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    55. Bhargava A, Clifton MS, Mhaske P, Mhsake P, Liao M, Pothoulakis C, Leeman SE, Grady EF. Local injection of dsRNA targeting calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR) ameliorates Clostridium difficile toxin A-induced ileitis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Jan 08; 110(2):731-6. PMID: 23267070; PMCID: PMC3545755.
    56. Koon HW, Ho S, Cheng M, Ichikawa R, Pothoulakis C. Differentiating functional roles of gene expression from immune and non-immune cells in mouse colitis by bone marrow transplantation. J Vis Exp. 2012 Oct 01; (68):e4208. PMID: 23052552.
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    57. Hing TC, Ho S, Shih DQ, Ichikawa R, Cheng M, Chen J, Chen X, Law I, Najarian R, Kelly CP, Gallo RL, Targan SR, Pothoulakis C, Koon HW. The antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin modulates Clostridium difficile-associated colitis and toxin A-mediated enteritis in mice. Gut. 2013 Sep; 62(9):1295-305. PMID: 22760006.
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    58. Im E, Riegler FM, Pothoulakis C, Rhee SH. Elevated lipopolysaccharide in the colon evokes intestinal inflammation, aggravated in immune modulator-impaired mice. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2012 Aug 15; 303(4):G490-7. PMID: 22723263; PMCID: PMC3423140.
    59. Law IK, Murphy JE, Bakirtzi K, Bunnett NW, Pothoulakis C. Neurotensin-induced proinflammatory signaling in human colonocytes is regulated by ß-arrestins and endothelin-converting enzyme-1-dependent endocytosis and resensitization of neurotensin receptor 1. J Biol Chem. 2012 Apr 27; 287(18):15066-75. PMID: 22416137; PMCID: PMC3340238.
    60. Fink C, Karagiannides I, Bakirtzi K, Pothoulakis C. Adipose tissue and inflammatory bowel disease pathogenesis. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2012 Aug; 18(8):1550-7. PMID: 22407798.
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    61. Kelesidis T, Pothoulakis C. Efficacy and safety of the probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii for the prevention and therapy of gastrointestinal disorders. Therap Adv Gastroenterol. 2012 Mar; 5(2):111-25. PMID: 22423260.
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    62. Oezguen N, Power TD, Urvil P, Feng H, Pothoulakis C, Stamler JS, Braun W, Savidge TC. Clostridial toxins: sensing a target in a hostile gut environment. Gut Microbes. 2012 Jan-Feb; 3(1):35-41. PMID: 22356854.
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    63. Chang L, Adeyemo M, Karagiannides I, Karagiannidis I, Videlock EJ, Bowe C, Shih W, Presson AP, Yuan PQ, Cortina G, Gong H, Singh S, Licudine A, Mayer M, Tache Y, Pothoulakis C, Mayer EA. Serum and colonic mucosal immune markers in irritable bowel syndrome. Am J Gastroenterol. 2012 Feb; 107(2):262-72. PMID: 22158028; PMCID: PMC3297737.
    64. Barrett R, Zhang X, Koon HW, Vu M, Chang JY, Yeager N, Nguyen MA, Michelsen KS, Berel D, Pothoulakis C, Targan SR, Shih DQ. Constitutive TL1A expression under colitogenic conditions modulates the severity and location of gut mucosal inflammation and induces fibrostenosis. Am J Pathol. 2012 Feb; 180(2):636-49. PMID: 22138299; PMCID: PMC3349869.
    65. Piskounova E, Polytarchou C, Thornton JE, LaPierre RJ, Pothoulakis C, Hagan JP, Iliopoulos D, Gregory RI. Lin28A and Lin28B inhibit let-7 microRNA biogenesis by distinct mechanisms. Cell. 2011 Nov 23; 147(5):1066-79. PMID: 22118463; PMCID: PMC3227872.
    66. Bugni JM, Rabadi LA, Jubbal K, Karagiannides I, Lawson G, Pothoulakis C. The neurotensin receptor-1 promotes tumor development in a sporadic but not an inflammation-associated mouse model of colon cancer. Int J Cancer. 2012 Apr 15; 130(8):1798-805. PMID: 21630261; PMCID: PMC3288327.
    67. Karagiannides I, Bakirtzi K, Kokkotou E, Stavrakis D, Margolis KG, Thomou T, Giorgadze N, Kirkland JL, Pothoulakis C. Role of substance P in the regulation of glucose metabolism via insulin signaling-associated pathways. Endocrinology. 2011 Dec; 152(12):4571-80. PMID: 22009727.
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    68. Koon HW, Shih DQ, Hing TC, Chen J, Ho S, Zhao D, Targan SR, Pothoulakis C. Substance P induces CCN1 expression via histone deacetylase activity in human colonic epithelial cells. Am J Pathol. 2011 Nov; 179(5):2315-26. PMID: 21945803; PMCID: PMC3204086.
    69. Smith AL, Leung J, Kun S, Zhang R, Karagiannides I, Raz S, Lee U, Glovatscka V, Pothoulakis C, Bradesi S, Mayer EA, Rodríguez LV. The effects of acute and chronic psychological stress on bladder function in a rodent model. Urology. 2011 Oct; 78(4):967.e1-7. PMID: 21868072; PMCID: PMC3190050.
    70. Savidge TC, Urvil P, Oezguen N, Ali K, Choudhury A, Acharya V, Pinchuk I, Torres AG, English RD, Wiktorowicz JE, Loeffelholz M, Kumar R, Shi L, Nie W, Braun W, Herman B, Hausladen A, Feng H, Stamler JS, Pothoulakis C. Host S-nitrosylation inhibits clostridial small molecule-activated glucosylating toxins. Nat Med. 2011 Aug 21; 17(9):1136-41. PMID: 21857653; PMCID: PMC3277400.
    71. Kang JK, Hwang JS, Nam HJ, Ahn KJ, Seok H, Kim SK, Yun EY, Pothoulakis C, Lamont JT, Kim H. The insect peptide coprisin prevents Clostridium difficile-mediated acute inflammation and mucosal damage through selective antimicrobial activity. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2011 Oct; 55(10):4850-7. PMID: 21807975.
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    72. Bakirtzi K, Hatziapostolou M, Karagiannides I, Polytarchou C, Jaeger S, Iliopoulos D, Pothoulakis C. Neurotensin signaling activates microRNAs-21 and -155 and Akt, promotes tumor growth in mice, and is increased in human colon tumors. Gastroenterology. 2011 Nov; 141(5):1749-61.e1. PMID: 21806946.
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    73. Koon HW, Shih DQ, Chen J, Bakirtzi K, Hing TC, Law I, Ho S, Ichikawa R, Zhao D, Xu H, Gallo R, Dempsey P, Cheng G, Targan SR, Pothoulakis C. Cathelicidin signaling via the Toll-like receptor protects against colitis in mice. Gastroenterology. 2011 Nov; 141(5):1852-63.e1-3. PMID: 21762664; PMCID: PMC3199285.
    74. Bradesi S, Golovatscka V, Ennes HS, McRoberts JA, Karagiannides I, Karagiannidis I, Bakirtzi K, Pothoulakis C, Mayer EA. Role of astrocytes and altered regulation of spinal glutamatergic neurotransmission in stress-induced visceral hyperalgesia in rats. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2011 Sep; 301(3):G580-9. PMID: 21719739; PMCID: PMC3174538.
    75. Karagiannides I, Stavrakis D, Bakirtzi K, Kokkotou E, Pirtskhalava T, Nayeb-Hashemi H, Bowe C, Bugni JM, Nuño M, Lu B, Gerard NP, Leeman SE, Kirkland JL, Pothoulakis C. Substance P (SP)-neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R) alters adipose tissue responses to high-fat diet and insulin action. Endocrinology. 2011 Jun; 152(6):2197-205. PMID: 21467195; PMCID: PMC3100617.
    76. Gourcerol G, Wu SV, Yuan PQ, Pham H, Miampamba M, Larauche M, Sanders P, Amano T, Mulak A, Im E, Pothoulakis C, Rivier J, Taché Y, Million M. Activation of corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 2 mediates the colonic motor coping response to acute stress in rodents. Gastroenterology. 2011 May; 140(5):1586-96.e6. PMID: 21277852; PMCID: PMC3150547.
    77. Shih DQ, Barrett R, Zhang X, Yeager N, Koon HW, Phaosawasdi P, Song Y, Ko B, Wong MH, Michelsen KS, Martins G, Pothoulakis C, Targan SR. Constitutive TL1A (TNFSF15) expression on lymphoid or myeloid cells leads to mild intestinal inflammation and fibrosis. PLoS One. 2011 Jan 11; 6(1):e16090. PMID: 21264313; PMCID: PMC3019214.
    78. Zhao D, Bakirtzi K, Zhan Y, Zeng H, Koon HW, Pothoulakis C. Insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor transactivation modulates the inflammatory and proliferative responses of neurotensin in human colonic epithelial cells. J Biol Chem. 2011 Feb 25; 286(8):6092-9. PMID: 21212273; PMCID: PMC3057861.
    79. Karagiannides I, Bakirtzi K, Pothoulakis C. Neuropeptide - adipose tissue communication and intestinal pathophysiology. Curr Pharm Des. 2011; 17(16):1576-82. PMID: 21548874.
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    80. Koon HW, Shih D, Karagiannides I, Zhao D, Fazelbhoy Z, Hing T, Xu H, Lu B, Gerard N, Pothoulakis C. Substance P modulates colitis-associated fibrosis. Am J Pathol. 2010 Nov; 177(5):2300-9. PMID: 20889569; PMCID: PMC2966789.
    81. Choi YJ, Im E, Chung HK, Pothoulakis C, Rhee SH. TRIF mediates Toll-like receptor 5-induced signaling in intestinal epithelial cells. J Biol Chem. 2010 Nov 26; 285(48):37570-8. PMID: 20855887; PMCID: PMC2988362.
    82. Chaniotou Z, Giannogonas P, Theoharis S, Teli T, Gay J, Savidge T, Koutmani Y, Brugni J, Kokkotou E, Pothoulakis C, Karalis KP. Corticotropin-releasing factor regulates TLR4 expression in the colon and protects mice from colitis. Gastroenterology. 2010 Dec; 139(6):2083-92. PMID: 20732324.
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    83. Ma EL, Choi YJ, Choi J, Pothoulakis C, Rhee SH, Im E. The anticancer effect of probiotic Bacillus polyfermenticus on human colon cancer cells is mediated through ErbB2 and ErbB3 inhibition. Int J Cancer. 2010 Aug 15; 127(4):780-90. PMID: 19876926.
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    84. Nam HJ, Kang JK, Kim SK, Ahn KJ, Seok H, Park SJ, Chang JS, Pothoulakis C, Lamont JT, Kim H. Clostridium difficile toxin A decreases acetylation of tubulin, leading to microtubule depolymerization through activation of histone deacetylase 6, and this mediates acute inflammation. J Biol Chem. 2010 Oct 22; 285(43):32888-96. PMID: 20696758; PMCID: PMC2963380.
    85. Choi YJ, Im E, Pothoulakis C, Rhee SH. TRIF modulates TLR5-dependent responses by inducing proteolytic degradation of TLR5. J Biol Chem. 2010 Jul 09; 285(28):21382-90. PMID: 20452988.
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    86. Im E, Rhee SH, Park YS, Fiocchi C, Taché Y, Pothoulakis C. Corticotropin-releasing hormone family of peptides regulates intestinal angiogenesis. Gastroenterology. 2010 Jun; 138(7):2457-67, 2467.e1-5. PMID: 20206175.
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    87. Im E, Choi YJ, Kim CH, Fiocchi C, Pothoulakis C, Rhee SH. The angiogenic effect of probiotic Bacillus polyfermenticus on human intestinal microvascular endothelial cells is mediated by IL-8. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2009 Nov; 297(5):G999-G1008. PMID: 20501448; PMCID: PMC2777460.
    88. Margolis KG, Pothoulakis C. Serotonin has a critical role in the pathogenesis of experimental colitis. Gastroenterology. 2009 Nov; 137(5):1562-6. PMID: 19789088.
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    89. Im E, Choi YJ, Pothoulakis C, Rhee SH. Bacillus polyfermenticus ameliorates colonic inflammation by promoting cytoprotective effects in colitic mice. J Nutr. 2009 Oct; 139(10):1848-54. PMID: 19675103; PMCID: PMC2744608.
    90. Chandras C, Koutmani Y, Kokkotou E, Pothoulakis C, Karalis KP. Activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B by corticotropin-releasing factor in human monocytes. Endocrinology. 2009 Oct; 150(10):4606-14. PMID: 19628576.
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    91. Chen X, Fruehauf J, Goldsmith JD, Xu H, Katchar KK, Koon HW, Zhao D, Kokkotou EG, Pothoulakis C, Kelly CP. Saccharomyces boulardii inhibits EGF receptor signaling and intestinal tumor growth in Apc(min) mice. Gastroenterology. 2009 Sep; 137(3):914-23. PMID: 19482027.
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    92. Kim H, Rhee SH, Pothoulakis C, LaMont JT. Clostridium difficile toxin A binds colonocyte Src causing dephosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase and paxillin. Exp Cell Res. 2009 Nov 15; 315(19):3336-44. PMID: 19481075; PMCID: PMC2783309.
    93. Koon HW, Kim YS, Xu H, Kumar A, Zhao D, Karagiannides I, Dobner PR, Pothoulakis C. Neurotensin induces IL-6 secretion in mouse preadipocytes and adipose tissues during 2,4,6,-trinitrobenzensulphonic acid-induced colitis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 May 26; 106(21):8766-71. PMID: 19443690; PMCID: PMC2688970.
    94. Rhee SH, Pothoulakis C, Mayer EA. Principles and clinical implications of the brain-gut-enteric microbiota axis. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2009 May; 6(5):306-14. PMID: 19404271.
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    95. Gross K, Karagiannides I, Thomou T, Koon HW, Bowe C, Kim H, Giorgadze N, Tchkonia T, Pirtskhalava T, Kirkland JL, Pothoulakis C. Substance P promotes expansion of human mesenteric preadipocytes through proliferative and antiapoptotic pathways. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2009 May; 296(5):G1012-9. PMID: 19282377.
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    96. Karagiannides I, Pothoulakis C. Substance P, obesity, and gut inflammation. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. 2009 Feb; 16(1):47-52. PMID: 19104238; PMCID: PMC4404028.
    97. Bradesi S, Svensson CI, Steinauer J, Pothoulakis C, Yaksh TL, Mayer EA. Role of spinal microglia in visceral hyperalgesia and NK1R up-regulation in a rat model of chronic stress. Gastroenterology. 2009 Apr; 136(4):1339-48, e1-2. PMID: 19249394; PMCID: PMC2812027.
    98. Karagiannides I, Pothoulakis C. Neuropeptides, mesenteric fat, and intestinal inflammation. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2008 Nov; 1144:127-35. PMID: 19076372; PMCID: PMC4404029.
    99. Kokkotou E, Moss AC, Torres D, Karagiannides I, Cheifetz A, Liu S, O'Brien M, Maratos-Flier E, Pothoulakis C. Melanin-concentrating hormone as a mediator of intestinal inflammation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Jul 29; 105(30):10613-8. PMID: 18650383; PMCID: PMC2492477.
    100. Pothoulakis C. Review article: anti-inflammatory mechanisms of action of Saccharomyces boulardii. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2009 Oct 15; 30(8):826-33. PMID: 19706150.
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    101. Koon HW, Zhao D, Xu H, Bowe C, Moss A, Moyer MP, Pothoulakis C. Substance P-mediated expression of the pro-angiogenic factor CCN1 modulates the course of colitis. Am J Pathol. 2008 Aug; 173(2):400-10. PMID: 18599605; PMCID: PMC2475777.
    102. Rhee SH, Im E, Pothoulakis C. Toll-like receptor 5 engagement modulates tumor development and growth in a mouse xenograft model of human colon cancer. Gastroenterology. 2008 Aug; 135(2):518-28. PMID: 18538140.
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    103. Na X, Kim H, Moyer MP, Pothoulakis C, LaMont JT. gp96 is a human colonocyte plasma membrane binding protein for Clostridium difficile toxin A. Infect Immun. 2008 Jul; 76(7):2862-71. PMID: 18411291.
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    104. Gay J, Kokkotou E, O'Brien M, Pothoulakis C, Karalis KP. Corticotropin-releasing hormone deficiency is associated with reduced local inflammation in a mouse model of experimental colitis. Endocrinology. 2008 Jul; 149(7):3403-9. PMID: 18403481; PMCID: PMC2453096.
    105. Karagiannides I, Torres D, Tseng YH, Bowe C, Carvalho E, Espinoza D, Pothoulakis C, Kokkotou E. Substance P as a novel anti-obesity target. Gastroenterology. 2008 Mar; 134(3):747-55. PMID: 18325388.
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    106. Subramaniam D, Ramalingam S, May R, Dieckgraefe BK, Berg DE, Pothoulakis C, Houchen CW, Wang TC, Anant S. Gastrin-mediated interleukin-8 and cyclooxygenase-2 gene expression: differential transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms. Gastroenterology. 2008 Apr; 134(4):1070-82. PMID: 18395088.
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    107. Kokkotou E, Moss AC, Michos A, Espinoza D, Cloud JW, Mustafa N, O'Brien M, Pothoulakis C, Kelly CP. Comparative efficacies of rifaximin and vancomycin for treatment of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea and prevention of disease recurrence in hamsters. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2008 Mar; 52(3):1121-6. PMID: 18195066.
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    108. Karagiannides I, Pothoulakis C. Obesity, innate immunity and gut inflammation. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2007 Nov; 23(6):661-6. PMID: 17906444.
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    109. Kim H, Rhee SH, Pothoulakis C, Lamont JT. Inflammation and apoptosis in Clostridium difficile enteritis is mediated by PGE2 up-regulation of Fas ligand. Gastroenterology. 2007 Sep; 133(3):875-86. PMID: 17854595.
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    110. Gross KJ, Pothoulakis C. Role of neuropeptides in inflammatory bowel disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2007 Jul; 13(7):918-32. PMID: 17343284.
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    111. Tansky MF, Pothoulakis C, Leeman SE. Functional consequences of alteration of N-linked glycosylation sites on the neurokinin 1 receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Jun 19; 104(25):10691-6. PMID: 17563389; PMCID: PMC1965574.
    112. Zhao D, Zhan Y, Zeng H, Koon HW, Moyer MP, Pothoulakis C. Neurotensin stimulates expression of early growth response gene-1 and EGF receptor through MAP kinase activation in human colonic epithelial cells. Int J Cancer. 2007 Apr 15; 120(8):1652-6. PMID: 17230532.
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    113. Cottrell GS, Amadesi S, Pikios S, Camerer E, Willardsen JA, Murphy BR, Caughey GH, Wolters PJ, Coughlin SR, Peterson A, Knecht W, Pothoulakis C, Bunnett NW, Grady EF. Protease-activated receptor 2, dipeptidyl peptidase I, and proteases mediate Clostridium difficile toxin A enteritis. Gastroenterology. 2007 Jun; 132(7):2422-37. PMID: 17570216; PMCID: PMC2366898.
    114. Moss AC, Anton P, Savidge T, Newman P, Cheifetz AS, Gay J, Paraschos S, Winter MW, Moyer MP, Karalis K, Kokkotou E, Pothoulakis C. Urocortin II mediates pro-inflammatory effects in human colonocytes via corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 2alpha. Gut. 2007 Sep; 56(9):1210-7. PMID: 17412781.
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    115. Savidge TC, Newman P, Pothoulakis C, Ruhl A, Neunlist M, Bourreille A, Hurst R, Sofroniew MV. Enteric glia regulate intestinal barrier function and inflammation via release of S-nitrosoglutathione. Gastroenterology. 2007 Apr; 132(4):1344-58. PMID: 17408650.
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    116. Koon HW, Zhao D, Zhan Y, Moyer MP, Pothoulakis C. Substance P mediates antiapoptotic responses in human colonocytes by Akt activation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Feb 06; 104(6):2013-8. PMID: 17264209; PMCID: PMC1794289.
    117. Koon HW, Pothoulakis C. Immunomodulatory properties of substance P: the gastrointestinal system as a model. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006 Nov; 1088:23-40. PMID: 17192554.
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    118. Gay J, Kokkotou E, O'Brien M, Pothoulakis C, Karalis KP. Interleukin-6 genetic ablation protects from trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis in mice. Putative effect of antiinflammatory cytokines. Neuroimmunomodulation. 2006; 13(2):114-21. PMID: 17077645.
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    119. Tchkonia T, Lenburg M, Thomou T, Giorgadze N, Frampton G, Pirtskhalava T, Cartwright A, Cartwright M, Flanagan J, Karagiannides I, Gerry N, Forse RA, Tchoukalova Y, Jensen MD, Pothoulakis C, Kirkland JL. Identification of depot-specific human fat cell progenitors through distinct expression profiles and developmental gene patterns. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Jan; 292(1):E298-307. PMID: 16985259.
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    120. Kokkotou E, Torres D, Moss AC, O'Brien M, Grigoriadis DE, Karalis K, Pothoulakis C. Corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 2-deficient mice have reduced intestinal inflammatory responses. J Immunol. 2006 Sep 01; 177(5):3355-61. PMID: 16920976.
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    121. Zhao D, Pothoulakis C. Effects of NT on gastrointestinal motility and secretion, and role in intestinal inflammation. Peptides. 2006 Oct; 27(10):2434-44. PMID: 16872719.
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    122. Chae S, Eckmann L, Miyamoto Y, Pothoulakis C, Karin M, Kagnoff MF. Epithelial cell I kappa B-kinase beta has an important protective role in Clostridium difficile toxin A-induced mucosal injury. J Immunol. 2006 Jul 15; 177(2):1214-20. PMID: 16818780.
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    123. Chen X, Kokkotou EG, Mustafa N, Bhaskar KR, Sougioultzis S, O'Brien M, Pothoulakis C, Kelly CP. Saccharomyces boulardii inhibits ERK1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation both in vitro and in vivo and protects against Clostridium difficile toxin A-induced enteritis. J Biol Chem. 2006 Aug 25; 281(34):24449-54. PMID: 16816386.
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    124. Bradesi S, Kokkotou E, Simeonidis S, Patierno S, Ennes HS, Mittal Y, McRoberts JA, Ohning G, McLean P, Marvizon JC, Sternini C, Pothoulakis C, Mayer EA. The role of neurokinin 1 receptors in the maintenance of visceral hyperalgesia induced by repeated stress in rats. Gastroenterology. 2006 May; 130(6):1729-42. PMID: 16697737.
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    125. Rhee SH, Kim H, Moyer MP, Pothoulakis C. Role of MyD88 in phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activation by flagellin/toll-like receptor 5 engagement in colonic epithelial cells. J Biol Chem. 2006 Jul 07; 281(27):18560-8. PMID: 16644730.
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    126. Koon HW, Zhao D, Zhan Y, Rhee SH, Moyer MP, Pothoulakis C. Substance P stimulates cyclooxygenase-2 and prostaglandin E2 expression through JAK-STAT activation in human colonic epithelial cells. J Immunol. 2006 Apr 15; 176(8):5050-9. PMID: 16585602; PMCID: PMC2593099.
    127. Zhao D, Zhan Y, Zeng H, Moyer MP, Mantzoros CS, Pothoulakis C. Ghrelin stimulates interleukin-8 gene expression through protein kinase C-mediated NF-kappaB pathway in human colonic epithelial cells. J Cell Biochem. 2006 Apr 15; 97(6):1317-27. PMID: 16552751.
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    128. Karagiannides I, Kokkotou E, Tansky M, Tchkonia T, Giorgadze N, O'Brien M, Leeman SE, Kirkland JL, Pothoulakis C. Induction of colitis causes inflammatory responses in fat depots: evidence for substance P pathways in human mesenteric preadipocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Mar 28; 103(13):5207-12. PMID: 16549770; PMCID: PMC1458819.
    129. Sougioultzis S, Simeonidis S, Bhaskar KR, Chen X, Anton PM, Keates S, Pothoulakis C, Kelly CP. Saccharomyces boulardii produces a soluble anti-inflammatory factor that inhibits NF-kappaB-mediated IL-8 gene expression. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006 Apr 28; 343(1):69-76. PMID: 16529714.
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    130. Kim H, Kokkotou E, Na X, Rhee SH, Moyer MP, Pothoulakis C, Lamont JT. Clostridium difficile toxin A-induced colonocyte apoptosis involves p53-dependent p21(WAF1/CIP1) induction via p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Gastroenterology. 2005 Dec; 129(6):1875-88. PMID: 16344056.
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    131. Rhee SH, Im E, Riegler M, Kokkotou E, O'brien M, Pothoulakis C. Pathophysiological role of Toll-like receptor 5 engagement by bacterial flagellin in colonic inflammation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Sep 20; 102(38):13610-5. PMID: 16157881; PMCID: PMC1224619.
    132. Koon HW, Zhao D, Zhan Y, Simeonidis S, Moyer MP, Pothoulakis C. Substance P-stimulated interleukin-8 expression in human colonic epithelial cells involves protein kinase Cdelta activation. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2005 Sep; 314(3):1393-400. PMID: 15917399.
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    133. Na X, Zhao D, Koon HW, Kim H, Husmark J, Moyer MP, Pothoulakis C, LaMont JT. Clostridium difficile toxin B activates the EGF receptor and the ERK/MAP kinase pathway in human colonocytes. Gastroenterology. 2005 Apr; 128(4):1002-11. PMID: 15825081.
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    134. Kim H, Rhee SH, Kokkotou E, Na X, Savidge T, Moyer MP, Pothoulakis C, LaMont JT. Clostridium difficile toxin A regulates inducible cyclooxygenase-2 and prostaglandin E2 synthesis in colonocytes via reactive oxygen species and activation of p38 MAPK. J Biol Chem. 2005 Jun 03; 280(22):21237-45. PMID: 15767259.
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    135. Zhao D, Zhan Y, Zeng H, Koon HW, Moyer MP, Pothoulakis C. Neurotensin stimulates interleukin-8 expression through modulation of I kappa B alpha phosphorylation and p65 transcriptional activity: involvement of protein kinase C alpha. Mol Pharmacol. 2005 Jun; 67(6):2025-31. PMID: 15755906.
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    136. Bradesi S, Schwetz I, Ennes HS, Lamy CM, Ohning G, Fanselow M, Pothoulakis C, McRoberts JA, Mayer EA. Repeated exposure to water avoidance stress in rats: a new model for sustained visceral hyperalgesia. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2005 Jul; 289(1):G42-53. PMID: 15746211.
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    137. Sougioultzis S, Kyne L, Drudy D, Keates S, Maroo S, Pothoulakis C, Giannasca PJ, Lee CK, Warny M, Monath TP, Kelly CP. Clostridium difficile toxoid vaccine in recurrent C. difficile-associated diarrhea. Gastroenterology. 2005 Mar; 128(3):764-70. PMID: 15765411.
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    138. Anton PM, O'Brien M, Kokkotou E, Eisenstein B, Michaelis A, Rothstein D, Paraschos S, Kelly CP, Pothoulakis C. Rifalazil treats and prevents relapse of clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea in hamsters. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2004 Oct; 48(10):3975-9. PMID: 15388461; PMCID: PMC521872.
    139. Koon HW, Zhao D, Na X, Moyer MP, Pothoulakis C. Metalloproteinases and transforming growth factor-alpha mediate substance P-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase activation and proliferation in human colonocytes. J Biol Chem. 2004 Oct 29; 279(44):45519-27. PMID: 15319441.
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    140. Zhao D, Zhan Y, Koon HW, Zeng H, Keates S, Moyer MP, Pothoulakis C. Metalloproteinase-dependent transforming growth factor-alpha release mediates neurotensin-stimulated MAP kinase activation in human colonic epithelial cells. J Biol Chem. 2004 Oct 15; 279(42):43547-54. PMID: 15247267.
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    141. Anton PM, Gay J, Mykoniatis A, Pan A, O'Brien M, Brown D, Karalis K, Pothoulakis C. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) requirement in Clostridium difficile toxin A-mediated intestinal inflammation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Jun 01; 101(22):8503-8. PMID: 15159534; PMCID: PMC420423.
    142. Rhee SH, Keates AC, Moyer MP, Pothoulakis C. MEK is a key modulator for TLR5-induced interleukin-8 and MIP3alpha gene expression in non-transformed human colonic epithelial cells. J Biol Chem. 2004 Jun 11; 279(24):25179-88. PMID: 15069060.
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    143. Zhao D, Pothoulakis C. Rho GTPases as therapeutic targets for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Expert Opin Ther Targets. 2003 Oct; 7(5):583-92. PMID: 14498821.
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    144. Savidge TC, Pan WH, Newman P, O'brien M, Anton PM, Pothoulakis C. Clostridium difficile toxin B is an inflammatory enterotoxin in human intestine. Gastroenterology. 2003 Aug; 125(2):413-20. PMID: 12891543.
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    145. Stucchi AF, Shebani KO, Leeman SE, Wang CC, Reed KL, Fruin AB, Gower AC, McClung JP, Andry CD, O'Brien MJ, Pothoulakis C, Becker JM. A neurokinin 1 receptor antagonist reduces an ongoing ileal pouch inflammation and the response to a subsequent inflammatory stimulus. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2003 Dec; 285(6):G1259-67. PMID: 12893626.
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    146. Lu L, Baldeon ME, Savidge T, Pothoulakis C, Walker WA. Development of microbial-human enterocyte interaction: cholera toxin. Pediatr Res. 2003 Aug; 54(2):212-8. PMID: 12736381.
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    147. Mykoniatis A, Anton PM, Wlk M, Wang CC, Ungsunan L, Blüher S, Venihaki M, Simeonidis S, Zacks J, Zhao D, Sougioultzis S, Karalis K, Mantzoros C, Pothoulakis C. Leptin mediates Clostridium difficile toxin A-induced enteritis in mice. Gastroenterology. 2003 Mar; 124(3):683-91. PMID: 12612907.
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    148. Simeonidis S, Castagliuolo I, Pan A, Liu J, Wang CC, Mykoniatis A, Pasha A, Valenick L, Sougioultzis S, Zhao D, Pothoulakis C. Regulation of the NK-1 receptor gene expression in human macrophage cells via an NF-kappa B site on its promoter. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Mar 04; 100(5):2957-62. PMID: 12594338; PMCID: PMC151448.
    149. Zhao D, Kuhnt-Moore S, Zeng H, Wu JS, Moyer MP, Pothoulakis C. Neurotensin stimulates IL-8 expression in human colonic epithelial cells through Rho GTPase-mediated NF-kappa B pathways. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2003 Jun; 284(6):C1397-404. PMID: 12584113.
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    150. Sougioultzis S, Pothoulakis C. Bacterial infections: small intestine and colon. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2003 Jan; 19(1):23-30. PMID: 15699889.
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    151. Liu TS, Musch MW, Sugi K, Walsh-Reitz MM, Ropeleski MJ, Hendrickson BA, Pothoulakis C, Lamont JT, Chang EB. Protective role of HSP72 against Clostridium difficile toxin A-induced intestinal epithelial cell dysfunction. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2003 Apr; 284(4):C1073-82. PMID: 12490434.
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    152. Zhao D, Kuhnt-Moore S, Zeng H, Pan A, Wu JS, Simeonidis S, Moyer MP, Pothoulakis C. Substance P-stimulated interleukin-8 expression in human colonic epithelial cells involves Rho family small GTPases. Biochem J. 2002 Dec 01; 368(Pt 2):665-72. PMID: 12169092; PMCID: PMC1222994.
    153. Wlk M, Wang CC, Venihaki M, Liu J, Zhao D, Anton PM, Mykoniatis A, Pan A, Zacks J, Karalis K, Pothoulakis C. Corticotropin-releasing hormone antagonists possess anti-inflammatory effects in the mouse ileum. Gastroenterology. 2002 Aug; 123(2):505-15. PMID: 12145804.
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    154. He D, Sougioultzis S, Hagen S, Liu J, Keates S, Keates AC, Pothoulakis C, Lamont JT. Clostridium difficile toxin A triggers human colonocyte IL-8 release via mitochondrial oxygen radical generation. Gastroenterology. 2002 Apr; 122(4):1048-57. PMID: 11910356.
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    155. Morteau O, Castagliuolo I, Mykoniatis A, Zacks J, Wlk M, Lu B, Pothoulakis C, Gerard NP, Gerard C. Genetic deficiency in the chemokine receptor CCR1 protects against acute Clostridium difficile toxin A enteritis in mice. Gastroenterology. 2002 Mar; 122(3):725-33. PMID: 11875005.
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    156. Agarwal B, Halmos B, Feoktistov AS, Protiva P, Ramey WG, Chen M, Pothoulakis C, Lamont JT, Holt PR. Mechanism of lovastatin-induced apoptosis in intestinal epithelial cells. Carcinogenesis. 2002 Mar; 23(3):521-8. PMID: 11895868.
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    157. Chen ML, Pothoulakis C, LaMont JT. Protein kinase C signaling regulates ZO-1 translocation and increased paracellular flux of T84 colonocytes exposed to Clostridium difficile toxin A. J Biol Chem. 2002 Feb 08; 277(6):4247-54. PMID: 11729192.
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    158. Pothoulakis C, Castagliuolo I, LaMont JT. Nerves and Intestinal Mast Cells Modulate Responses to Enterotoxins. News Physiol Sci. 1998 Apr; 13:58-63. PMID: 11390763.
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