Bezanilla Francisco L.

Title(s)Professor, Department of Anesthesiology
Phone(310) 825-2735
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    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Bezanilla F. Influences: The Cell Physiology Laboratory in Montemar, Chile. J Gen Physiol. 2018 Nov 05; 150(11):1464-1468. PMID: 30341084.
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    2. Bezanilla F. Gating currents. J Gen Physiol. 2018 Jul 02; 150(7):911-932. PMID: 29941430.
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    3. Infield DT, Lee EEL, Galpin JD, Galles GD, Bezanilla F, Ahern CA. Replacing voltage sensor arginines with citrulline provides mechanistic insight into charge versus shape. J Gen Physiol. 2018 Jul 02; 150(7):1017-1024. PMID: 29866793.
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    4. Carrasquel-Ursulaez W, Alvarez O, Bezanilla F, Latorre R. Determination of the Stoichiometry between a- and ?1 Subunits of the BK Channel Using LRET. Biophys J. 2018 Jun 05; 114(11):2493-2497. PMID: 29705199.
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    5. Tian B, Xu S, Rogers JA, Cestellos-Blanco S, Yang P, Carvalho-de-Souza JL, Bezanilla F, Liu J, Bao Z, Hjort M, Cao Y, Melosh N, Lanzani G, Benfenati F, Galli G, Gygi F, Kautz R, Gorodetsky AA, Kim SS, Lu TK, Anikeeva P, Cifra M, Krivosudský O, Havelka D, Jiang Y. Roadmap on semiconductor-cell biointerfaces. Phys Biol. 2018 03 09; 15(3):031002. PMID: 29205173.
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    6. Mathur C, Johnson KR, Tong BA, Miranda P, Srikumar D, Basilio D, Latorre R, Bezanilla F, Holmgren M. Demonstration of ion channel synthesis by isolated squid giant axon provides functional evidence for localized axonal membrane protein translation. Sci Rep. 2018 02 02; 8(1):2207. PMID: 29396520.
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    7. Carvalho-de-Souza JL, Bezanilla F. Nonsensing residues in S3-S4 linker's C terminus affect the voltage sensor set point in K+ channels. J Gen Physiol. 2018 Feb 05; 150(2):307-321. PMID: 29321262.
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    8. Nanazashvili M, Sánchez-Rodríguez JE, Fosque B, Bezanilla F, Sackin H. LRET Determination of Molecular Distances during pH Gating of the Mammalian Inward Rectifier Kir1.1b. Biophys J. 2018 01 09; 114(1):88-97. PMID: 29320699.
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    9. Carvalho-de-Souza JL, Pinto BI, Pepperberg DR, Bezanilla F. Optocapacitive Generation of Action Potentials by Microsecond Laser Pulses of Nanojoule Energy. Biophys J. 2018 Jan 23; 114(2):283-288. PMID: 29273263.
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    10. Kubota T, Dang B, Carvalho-de-Souza JL, Correa AM, Bezanilla F. Nav channel binder containing a specific conjugation-site based on a low toxicity ß-scorpion toxin. Sci Rep. 2017 Nov 27; 7(1):16329. PMID: 29180755.
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    11. Shapiro MG, Homma K, Villarreal S, Richter CP, Bezanilla F. Correspondence: Reply to 'Revisiting the theoretical cell membrane thermal capacitance response'. Nat Commun. 2017 11 10; 8(1):1432. PMID: 29127286.
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    12. Lee EEL, Bezanilla F. Biophysical Characterization of Genetically Encoded Voltage Sensor ASAP1: Dynamic Range Improvement. Biophys J. 2017 Nov 21; 113(10):2178-2181. PMID: 29108650.
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    13. Kubota T, Correa AM, Bezanilla F. Mechanism of functional interaction between potassium channel Kv1.3 and sodium channel NavBeta1 subunit. Sci Rep. 2017 03 28; 7:45310. PMID: 28349975.
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    14. Kubota T, Durek T, Dang B, Finol-Urdaneta RK, Craik DJ, Kent SB, French RJ, Bezanilla F, Correa AM. Mapping of voltage sensor positions in resting and inactivated mammalian sodium channels by LRET. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017 03 07; 114(10):E1857-E1865. PMID: 28202723.
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    15. Barchad-Avitzur O, Priest MF, Dekel N, Bezanilla F, Parnas H, Ben-Chaim Y. A Novel Voltage Sensor in the Orthosteric Binding Site of the M2 Muscarinic Receptor. Biophys J. 2016 Oct 04; 111(7):1396-1408. PMID: 27705763.
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    16. Dang B, Kubota T, Mandal K, Correa AM, Bezanilla F, Kent SB. Elucidation of the Covalent and Tertiary Structures of Biologically Active Ts3 Toxin. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2016 07 18; 55(30):8639-42. PMID: 27244051.
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    17. Castillo JP, Sánchez-Rodríguez JE, Hyde HC, Zaelzer CA, Aguayo D, Sepúlveda RV, Luk LY, Kent SB, Gonzalez-Nilo FD, Bezanilla F, Latorre R. ß1-subunit-induced structural rearrangements of the Ca2+- and voltage-activated K+ (BK) channel. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016 Jun 07; 113(23):E3231-9. PMID: 27217576; PMCID: PMC4988589 [Available on 12/07/16].
    18. Labro AJ, Priest MF, Lacroix JJ, Snyders DJ, Bezanilla F. Kv3.1 uses a timely resurgent K(+) current to secure action potential repolarization. Nat Commun. 2015 Dec 17; 6:10173. PMID: 26673941; PMCID: PMC4703866.
    19. Treger JS, Priest MF, Bezanilla F. Single-molecule fluorimetry and gating currents inspire an improved optical voltage indicator. Elife. 2015 Nov 24; 4:e10482. PMID: 26599732; PMCID: PMC4658195.
    20. Li Q, Shen R, Treger JS, Wanderling SS, Milewski W, Siwowska K, Bezanilla F, Perozo E. Resting state of the human proton channel dimer in a lipid bilayer. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 Nov 03; 112(44):E5926-35. PMID: 26443860; PMCID: PMC4640771.
    21. Castillo JP, Rui H, Basilio D, Das A, Roux B, Latorre R, Bezanilla F, Holmgren M. Mechanism of potassium ion uptake by the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. Nat Commun. 2015 Jul 24; 6:7622. PMID: 26205423.
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    22. Carvalho-de-Souza JL, Treger JS, Dang B, Kent SB, Pepperberg DR, Bezanilla F. Photosensitivity of neurons enabled by cell-targeted gold nanoparticles. Neuron. 2015 Apr 08; 86(1):207-17. PMID: 25772189; PMCID: PMC4393361.
    23. Sánchez-Rodríguez JE, Khalili-Araghi F, Miranda P, Roux B, Holmgren M, Bezanilla F. A structural rearrangement of the Na+/K+-ATPase traps ouabain within the external ion permeation pathway. J Mol Biol. 2015 Mar 27; 427(6 Pt B):1335-1344. PMID: 25637661.
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    24. Priest M, Bezanilla F. Functional Site-Directed Fluorometry. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2015; 869:55-76. PMID: 26381940.
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    25. Treger JS, Priest MF, Iezzi R, Bezanilla F. Real-time imaging of electrical signals with an infrared FDA-approved dye. Biophys J. 2014 Sep 16; 107(6):L09-12. PMID: 25229155; PMCID: PMC4167294.
    26. Kubota T, Lacroix JJ, Bezanilla F, Correa AM. Probing a-3(10) transitions in a voltage-sensing S4 helix. Biophys J. 2014 Sep 02; 107(5):1117-1128. PMID: 25185547; PMCID: PMC4156671.
    27. Dang B, Kubota T, Correa AM, Bezanilla F, Kent SB. Total chemical synthesis of biologically active fluorescent dye-labeled Ts1 toxin. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2014 Aug 18; 53(34):8970-4. PMID: 24989851.
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    28. Lacroix JJ, Hyde HC, Campos FV, Bezanilla F. Moving gating charges through the gating pore in a Kv channel voltage sensor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 May 13; 111(19):E1950-9. PMID: 24782544; PMCID: PMC4024920.
    29. Dalmas O, Sompornpisut P, Bezanilla F, Perozo E. Molecular mechanism of Mg2+-dependent gating in CorA. Nat Commun. 2014 Apr 02; 5:3590. PMID: 24694723; PMCID: PMC4066822.
    30. Dalmas O, Sandtner W, Medovoy D, Frezza L, Bezanilla F, Perozo E. A repulsion mechanism explains magnesium permeation and selectivity in CorA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Feb 25; 111(8):3002-7. PMID: 24516146; PMCID: PMC3939898.
    31. Priest MF, Lacroix JJ, Villalba-Galea CA, Bezanilla F. S3-S4 linker length modulates the relaxed state of a voltage-gated potassium channel. Biophys J. 2013 Nov 19; 105(10):2312-22. PMID: 24268143; PMCID: PMC3838747.
    32. Bezanilla F, Villalba-Galea CA. The gating charge should not be estimated by fitting a two-state model to a Q-V curve. J Gen Physiol. 2013 Dec; 142(6):575-8. PMID: 24218396; PMCID: PMC3840919.
    33. Villalba-Galea CA, Frezza L, Sandtner W, Bezanilla F. Sensing charges of the Ciona intestinalis voltage-sensing phosphatase. J Gen Physiol. 2013 Nov; 142(5):543-55. PMID: 24127524; PMCID: PMC3813379.
    34. Lacroix JJ, Campos FV, Frezza L, Bezanilla F. Molecular bases for the asynchronous activation of sodium and potassium channels required for nerve impulse generation. Neuron. 2013 Aug 21; 79(4):651-7. PMID: 23972594; PMCID: PMC3907179.
    35. Capes DL, Goldschen-Ohm MP, Arcisio-Miranda M, Bezanilla F, Chanda B. Domain IV voltage-sensor movement is both sufficient and rate limiting for fast inactivation in sodium channels. J Gen Physiol. 2013 Aug; 142(2):101-12. PMID: 23858005; PMCID: PMC3727307.
    36. Shapiro MG, Priest MF, Siegel PH, Bezanilla F. Thermal mechanisms of millimeter wave stimulation of excitable cells. Biophys J. 2013 Jun 18; 104(12):2622-8. PMID: 23790370; PMCID: PMC3686354.
    37. Ruscic KJ, Miceli F, Villalba-Galea CA, Dai H, Mishina Y, Bezanilla F, Goldstein SA. IKs channels open slowly because KCNE1 accessory subunits slow the movement of S4 voltage sensors in KCNQ1 pore-forming subunits. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Feb 12; 110(7):E559-66. PMID: 23359697; PMCID: PMC3574954.
    38. Vargas E, Yarov-Yarovoy V, Khalili-Araghi F, Catterall WA, Klein ML, Tarek M, Lindahl E, Schulten K, Perozo E, Bezanilla F, Roux B. An emerging consensus on voltage-dependent gating from computational modeling and molecular dynamics simulations. J Gen Physiol. 2012 Dec; 140(6):587-94. PMID: 23183694; PMCID: PMC3514734.
    39. Lacroix JJ, Pless SA, Maragliano L, Campos FV, Galpin JD, Ahern CA, Roux B, Bezanilla F. Intermediate state trapping of a voltage sensor. J Gen Physiol. 2012 Dec; 140(6):635-52. PMID: 23183699; PMCID: PMC3514728.
    40. Labro AJ, Lacroix JJ, Villalba-Galea CA, Snyders DJ, Bezanilla F. Molecular mechanism for depolarization-induced modulation of Kv channel closure. J Gen Physiol. 2012 Nov; 140(5):481-93. PMID: 23071266; PMCID: PMC3483114.
    41. Hyde HC, Sandtner W, Vargas E, Dagcan AT, Robertson JL, Roux B, Correa AM, Bezanilla F. Nano-positioning system for structural analysis of functional homomeric proteins in multiple conformations. Structure. 2012 Oct 10; 20(10):1629-40. PMID: 23063010; PMCID: PMC3633233.
    42. Lacroix JJ, Bezanilla F. Tuning the voltage-sensor motion with a single residue. Biophys J. 2012 Aug 08; 103(3):L23-5. PMID: 22947880; PMCID: PMC3414891.
    43. Miceli F, Vargas E, Bezanilla F, Taglialatela M. Gating currents from Kv7 channels carrying neuronal hyperexcitability mutations in the voltage-sensing domain. Biophys J. 2012 Mar 21; 102(6):1372-82. PMID: 22455920; PMCID: PMC3309409.
    44. Shapiro MG, Homma K, Villarreal S, Richter CP, Bezanilla F. Infrared light excites cells by changing their electrical capacitance. Nat Commun. 2012 Mar 13; 3:736. PMID: 22415827.
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    45. Gadsby DC, Bezanilla F, Rakowski RF, De Weer P, Holmgren M. The dynamic relationships between the three events that release individual Na? ions from the Na?/K?-ATPase. Nat Commun. 2012 Feb 14; 3:669. PMID: 22334072; PMCID: PMC3293407.
    46. Dekel N, Priest MF, Parnas H, Parnas I, Bezanilla F. Depolarization induces a conformational change in the binding site region of the M2 muscarinic receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Jan 03; 109(1):285-90. PMID: 22184214; PMCID: PMC3252955.
    47. Vargas E, Bezanilla F, Roux B. In search of a consensus model of the resting state of a voltage-sensing domain. Neuron. 2011 Dec 08; 72(5):713-20. PMID: 22153369; PMCID: PMC3268064.
    48. Castillo JP, De Giorgis D, Basilio D, Gadsby DC, Rosenthal JJ, Latorre R, Holmgren M, Bezanilla F. Energy landscape of the reactions governing the Na+ deeply occluded state of the Na+/K+-ATPase in the giant axon of the Humboldt squid. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Dec 20; 108(51):20556-61. PMID: 22143771.
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    49. Sandtner W, Egwolf B, Khalili-Araghi F, Sánchez-Rodríguez JE, Roux B, Bezanilla F, Holmgren M. Ouabain binding site in a functioning Na+/K+ ATPase. J Biol Chem. 2011 Nov 04; 286(44):38177-83. PMID: 21911500.
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    50. Lacroix JJ, Bezanilla F. Control of a final gating charge transition by a hydrophobic residue in the S2 segment of a K+ channel voltage sensor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Apr 19; 108(16):6444-9. PMID: 21464282; PMCID: PMC3081032.
    51. Lacroix J, Halaszovich CR, Schreiber DN, Leitner MG, Bezanilla F, Oliver D, Villalba-Galea CA. Controlling the activity of a phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) by membrane potential. J Biol Chem. 2011 May 20; 286(20):17945-53. PMID: 21454672; PMCID: PMC3093869.
    52. Lacroix JJ, Labro AJ, Bezanilla F. Properties of deactivation gating currents in Shaker channels. Biophys J. 2011 Mar 02; 100(5):L28-30. PMID: 21354387; PMCID: PMC3043211.
    53. Gagnon DG, Bezanilla F. The contribution of individual subunits to the coupling of the voltage sensor to pore opening in Shaker K channels: effect of ILT mutations in heterotetramers. J Gen Physiol. 2010 Nov; 136(5):555-68. PMID: 20974773; PMCID: PMC2964516.
    54. Miceli F, Cilio MR, Taglialatela M, Bezanilla F. Gating currents from neuronal K(V)7.4 channels: general features and correlation with the ionic conductance. Channels (Austin). 2009 Jul-Aug; 3(4):274-83. PMID: 19690464.
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    55. Villalba-Galea CA, Miceli F, Taglialatela M, Bezanilla F. Coupling between the voltage-sensing and phosphatase domains of Ci-VSP. J Gen Physiol. 2009 Jul; 134(1):5-14. PMID: 19564425; PMCID: PMC2712979.
    56. Gagnon DG, Bezanilla F. A single charged voltage sensor is capable of gating the Shaker K+ channel. J Gen Physiol. 2009 May; 133(5):467-83. PMID: 19398775; PMCID: PMC2712970.
    57. Rosenthal JJ, Seibel BA, Dymowska A, Bezanilla F. Trade-off between aerobic capacity and locomotor capability in an Antarctic pteropod. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Apr 14; 106(15):6192-6. PMID: 19325127.
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    58. Villalba-Galea CA, Sandtner W, Dimitrov D, Mutoh H, Knöpfel T, Bezanilla F. Charge movement of a voltage-sensitive fluorescent protein. Biophys J. 2009 Jan; 96(2):L19-21. PMID: 19167283; PMCID: PMC2716470.
    59. Blunck R, McGuire H, Hyde HC, Bezanilla F. Fluorescence detection of the movement of single KcsA subunits reveals cooperativity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Dec 23; 105(51):20263-8. PMID: 19074286; PMCID: PMC2629256.
    60. Bezanilla F. Ion channels: from conductance to structure. Neuron. 2008 Nov 06; 60(3):456-68. PMID: 18995820.
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    61. Villalba-Galea CA, Sandtner W, Starace DM, Bezanilla F. S4-based voltage sensors have three major conformations. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Nov 18; 105(46):17600-7. PMID: 18818307; PMCID: PMC2584729.
    62. Campos FV, Chanda B, Beirão PS, Bezanilla F. Alpha-scorpion toxin impairs a conformational change that leads to fast inactivation of muscle sodium channels. J Gen Physiol. 2008 Aug; 132(2):251-63. PMID: 18663133; PMCID: PMC2483334.
    63. Bezanilla F. How membrane proteins sense voltage. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2008 Apr; 9(4):323-32. PMID: 18354422.
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    64. Chanda B, Bezanilla F. A common pathway for charge transport through voltage-sensing domains. Neuron. 2008 Feb 07; 57(3):345-51. PMID: 18255028.
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    65. Sandtner W, Bezanilla F, Correa AM. In vivo measurement of intramolecular distances using genetically encoded reporters. Biophys J. 2007 Nov 01; 93(9):L45-7. PMID: 17766346; PMCID: PMC2025654.
    66. Campos FV, Chanda B, Beirão PS, Bezanilla F. beta-Scorpion toxin modifies gating transitions in all four voltage sensors of the sodium channel. J Gen Physiol. 2007 Sep; 130(3):257-68. PMID: 17698594; PMCID: PMC2151646.
    67. Campos FV, Chanda B, Roux B, Bezanilla F. Two atomic constraints unambiguously position the S4 segment relative to S1 and S2 segments in the closed state of Shaker K channel. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 May 08; 104(19):7904-9. PMID: 17470814; PMCID: PMC1876545.
    68. Bezanilla F. The action potential: from voltage-gated conductances to molecular structures. Biol Res. 2006; 39(3):425-35. PMID: 17106575.
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    69. Ben-Chaim Y, Chanda B, Dascal N, Bezanilla F, Parnas I, Parnas H. Movement of 'gating charge' is coupled to ligand binding in a G-protein-coupled receptor. Nature. 2006 Nov 02; 444(7115):106-9. PMID: 17065983.
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    70. Blunck R, Cordero-Morales JF, Cuello LG, Perozo E, Bezanilla F. Detection of the opening of the bundle crossing in KcsA with fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy reveals the existence of two gates for ion conduction. J Gen Physiol. 2006 Nov; 128(5):569-81. PMID: 17043150; PMCID: PMC2151582.
    71. Richardson J, Blunck R, Ge P, Selvin PR, Bezanilla F, Papazian DM, Correa AM. Distance measurements reveal a common topology of prokaryotic voltage-gated ion channels in the lipid bilayer. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Oct 24; 103(43):15865-70. PMID: 17043236; PMCID: PMC1635094.
    72. Jurisic N, Bezanilla F. Analysis of the optimal channel density of the squid giant axon using a reparameterized Hodgkin-Huxley model. J Neurophysiol. 2006 Aug; 96(2):959; author reply 960. PMID: 16835367.
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    73. Bannister JP, Chanda B, Bezanilla F, Papazian DM. Optical detection of rate-determining ion-modulated conformational changes of the ether-à-go-go K+ channel voltage sensor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Dec 20; 102(51):18718-23. PMID: 16339906; PMCID: PMC1317915.
    74. Chanda B, Blunck R, Faria LC, Schweizer FE, Mody I, Bezanilla F. A hybrid approach to measuring electrical activity in genetically specified neurons. Nat Neurosci. 2005 Nov; 8(11):1619-26. PMID: 16205716.
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    75. Posson DJ, Ge P, Miller C, Bezanilla F, Selvin PR. Small vertical movement of a K+ channel voltage sensor measured with luminescence energy transfer. Nature. 2005 Aug 11; 436(7052):848-51. PMID: 16094368; PMCID: PMC1409748.
    76. Chanda B, Asamoah OK, Blunck R, Roux B, Bezanilla F. Gating charge displacement in voltage-gated ion channels involves limited transmembrane movement. Nature. 2005 Aug 11; 436(7052):852-6. PMID: 16094369.
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    77. Bezanilla F. The origin of subconductance levels in voltage-gated K+ channels. J Gen Physiol. 2005 Aug; 126(2):83-6. PMID: 16043771; PMCID: PMC2266566.
    78. Bezanilla F. The voltage-sensor structure in a voltage-gated channel. Trends Biochem Sci. 2005 Apr; 30(4):166-8. PMID: 15817390.
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    79. Bezanilla F. Voltage-gated ion channels. IEEE Trans Nanobioscience. 2005 Mar; 4(1):34-48. PMID: 15816170.
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    80. Loo DD, Hirayama BA, Cha A, Bezanilla F, Wright EM. Perturbation analysis of the voltage-sensitive conformational changes of the Na+/glucose cotransporter. J Gen Physiol. 2005 Jan; 125(1):13-36. PMID: 15596535; PMCID: PMC2217483.
    81. Pantoja R, Nagarah JM, Starace DM, Melosh NA, Blunck R, Bezanilla F, Heath JR. Silicon chip-based patch-clamp electrodes integrated with PDMS microfluidics. Biosens Bioelectron. 2004 Oct 15; 20(3):509-17. PMID: 15494233.
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    82. Bezanilla F. RNA editing of a human potassium channel modifies its inactivation. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2004 Oct; 11(10):915-6. PMID: 15452561.
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    83. Kuzmenkin A, Bezanilla F, Correa AM. Gating of the bacterial sodium channel, NaChBac: voltage-dependent charge movement and gating currents. J Gen Physiol. 2004 Oct; 124(4):349-56. PMID: 15365092; PMCID: PMC2233907.
    84. Dahan DS, Dibas MI, Petersson EJ, Auyeung VC, Chanda B, Bezanilla F, Dougherty DA, Lester HA. A fluorophore attached to nicotinic acetylcholine receptor beta M2 detects productive binding of agonist to the alpha delta site. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Jul 06; 101(27):10195-200. PMID: 15218096; PMCID: PMC454187.
    85. Blunck R, Starace DM, Correa AM, Bezanilla F. Detecting rearrangements of shaker and NaChBac in real-time with fluorescence spectroscopy in patch-clamped mammalian cells. Biophys J. 2004 Jun; 86(6):3966-80. PMID: 15189893; PMCID: PMC1304298.
    86. Chanda B, Asamoah OK, Bezanilla F. Coupling interactions between voltage sensors of the sodium channel as revealed by site-specific measurements. J Gen Physiol. 2004 Mar; 123(3):217-30. PMID: 14981134; PMCID: PMC2217449.
    87. Starace DM, Bezanilla F. A proton pore in a potassium channel voltage sensor reveals a focused electric field. Nature. 2004 Feb 05; 427(6974):548-53. PMID: 14765197.
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    88. Sigg D, Bezanilla F, Stefani E. Fast gating in the Shaker K+ channel and the energy landscape of activation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Jun 24; 100(13):7611-5. PMID: 12805566; PMCID: PMC164634.
    89. Sigg D, Bezanilla F. A physical model of potassium channel activation: from energy landscape to gating kinetics. Biophys J. 2003 Jun; 84(6):3703-16. PMID: 12770877; PMCID: PMC1302953.
    90. Asamoah OK, Wuskell JP, Loew LM, Bezanilla F. A fluorometric approach to local electric field measurements in a voltage-gated ion channel. Neuron. 2003 Jan 09; 37(1):85-97. PMID: 12526775.
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    91. Bezanilla F, Perozo E. The voltage sensor and the gate in ion channels. Adv Protein Chem. 2003; 63:211-41. PMID: 12629972.
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    92. Bezanilla F, Perozo E. Structural biology. Force and voltage sensors in one structure. Science. 2002 Nov 22; 298(5598):1562-3. PMID: 12446894.
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    93. Chanda B, Bezanilla F. Tracking voltage-dependent conformational changes in skeletal muscle sodium channel during activation. J Gen Physiol. 2002 Nov; 120(5):629-45. PMID: 12407076; PMCID: PMC2229551.
    94. Bezanilla F. Voltage sensor movements. J Gen Physiol. 2002 Oct; 120(4):465-73. PMID: 12356849.
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    95. Rosenthal JJ, Bezanilla F. A comparison of propagated action potentials from tropical and temperate squid axons: different durations and conduction velocities correlate with ionic conductance levels. J Exp Biol. 2002 Jun; 205(Pt 12):1819-30. PMID: 12042340.
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    96. Rosenthal JJ, Bezanilla F. Extensive editing of mRNAs for the squid delayed rectifier K+ channel regulates subunit tetramerization. Neuron. 2002 May 30; 34(5):743-57. PMID: 12062021.
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    97. Bezanilla F. The voltage sensor in voltage-dependent ion channels. Physiol Rev. 2000 Apr; 80(2):555-92. PMID: 10747201.
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    98. Rodríguez BM, Sigg D, Bezanilla F. Voltage gating of Shaker K+ channels. The effect of temperature on ionic and gating currents. J Gen Physiol. 1998 Aug; 112(2):223-42. PMID: 9689029; PMCID: PMC2525751.