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Plaxco Kevin

TitleCNSI-UCSB
InstitutionUniversity of California Los Angeles
DepartmentCalifornia NanoSystems Institute
AddressDepartment of Chemistry and Biochemistry
Santa Barbara CA 93106
Phone(805) 893-4120
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    Other Positions
    TitleAssistant Professor


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    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Li H, Somerson J, Xia F, Plaxco KW. Electrochemical DNA-Based Sensors for Molecular Quality Control: Continuous, Real-Time Melamine Detection in Flowing Whole Milk. Anal Chem. 2018 Aug 30. PMID: 30141321.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Kurnik M, Ortega G, Dauphin-Ducharme P, Li H, Caceres A, Plaxco KW. Quantitative measurements of protein-surface interaction thermodynamics. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018 Jul 30. PMID: 30061388.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Watkins HM, Ricci F, Plaxco KW. Experimental Measurement of Surface Charge Effects on the Stability of a Surface-Bound Biopolymer. Langmuir. 2018 Jul 04. PMID: 29972737.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Kang D, Parolo C, Sun S, Ogden N, Dahlquist FW, Plaxco KW. Expanding the scope of protein-detecting electrochemical DNA "scaffold" sensors. ACS Sens. 2018 Jun 07. PMID: 29877078.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Simon AJ, Walls-Smith LT, Plaxco KW. Exploiting the conformational-selection mechanism to control the response kinetics of a "smart" DNA hydrogel. Analyst. 2018 May 01. PMID: 29713702.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Somerson J, Plaxco KW. Electrochemical Aptamer-Based Sensors for Rapid Point-of-Use Monitoring of the Mycotoxin Ochratoxin A Directly in a Food Stream. Molecules. 2018 Apr 15; 23(4). PMID: 29662036.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Arroyo-Currás N, Dauphin-Ducharme P, Ortega G, Ploense KL, Kippin TE, Plaxco KW. Subsecond-Resolved Molecular Measurements in the Living Body Using Chronoamperometrically Interrogated Aptamer-Based Sensors. ACS Sens. 2018 Feb 23; 3(2):360-366. PMID: 29124939.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Arroyo-Currás N, Scida K, Ploense KL, Kippin TE, Plaxco KW. High Surface Area Electrodes Generated via Electrochemical Roughening Improve the Signaling of Electrochemical Aptamer-Based Biosensors. Anal Chem. 2017 Nov 21; 89(22):12185-12191. PMID: 29076341.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Kang D, Sun S, Kurnik M, Morales D, Dahlquist FW, Plaxco KW. New Architecture for Reagentless, Protein-Based Electrochemical Biosensors. J Am Chem Soc. 2017 09 06; 139(35):12113-12116. PMID: 28789522.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Li H, Dauphin-Ducharme P, Ortega G, Plaxco KW. Calibration-Free Electrochemical Biosensors Supporting Accurate Molecular Measurements Directly in Undiluted Whole Blood. J Am Chem Soc. 2017 08 16; 139(32):11207-11213. PMID: 28712286.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Dauphin-Ducharme P, Arroyo-Currás N, Kurnik M, Ortega G, Li H, Plaxco KW. Simulation-Based Approach to Determining Electron Transfer Rates Using Square-Wave Voltammetry. Langmuir. 2017 May 09; 33(18):4407-4413. PMID: 28391695.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Mariottini D, Idili A, Vallée-Bélisle A, Plaxco KW, Ricci F. A DNA Nanodevice That Loads and Releases a Cargo with Hemoglobin-Like Allosteric Control and Cooperativity. Nano Lett. 2017 May 10; 17(5):3225-3230. PMID: 28387120.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Li H, Dauphin-Ducharme P, Arroyo-Currás N, Tran CH, Vieira PA, Li S, Shin C, Somerson J, Kippin TE, Plaxco KW. A Biomimetic Phosphatidylcholine-Terminated Monolayer Greatly Improves the In Vivo Performance of Electrochemical Aptamer-Based Sensors. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2017 Jun 19; 56(26):7492-7495. PMID: 28371090.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Hauke A, Kumar LSS, Kim MY, Pegan J, Khine M, Li H, Plaxco KW, Heikenfeld J. Superwetting and aptamer functionalized shrink-induced high surface area electrochemical sensors. Biosens Bioelectron. 2017 Aug 15; 94:438-442. PMID: 28334628.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Arroyo-Currás N, Somerson J, Vieira PA, Ploense KL, Kippin TE, Plaxco KW. Real-time measurement of small molecules directly in awake, ambulatory animals. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017 01 24; 114(4):645-650. PMID: 28069939.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Simon AJ, Walls-Smith LT, Freddi MJ, Fong FY, Gubala V, Plaxco KW. Simultaneous Measurement of the Dissolution Kinetics of Responsive DNA Hydrogels at Multiple Length Scales. ACS Nano. 2017 Jan 24; 11(1):461-468. PMID: 28006092.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Dauphin-Ducharme P, Plaxco KW. Maximizing the Signal Gain of Electrochemical-DNA Sensors. Anal Chem. 2016 Dec 06; 88(23):11654-11662. PMID: 27805364.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Li H, Arroyo-Currás N, Kang D, Ricci F, Plaxco KW. Dual-Reporter Drift Correction To Enhance the Performance of Electrochemical Aptamer-Based Sensors in Whole Blood. J Am Chem Soc. 2016 12 14; 138(49):15809-15812. PMID: 27960346.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Kang D, Ricci F, White RJ, Plaxco KW. Survey of Redox-Active Moieties for Application in Multiplexed Electrochemical Biosensors. Anal Chem. 2016 Nov 01; 88(21):10452-10458. PMID: 27659949.
      View in: PubMed
    20. Ricci F, Vallée-Bélisle A, Simon AJ, Porchetta A, Plaxco KW. Using Nature's "Tricks" To Rationally Tune the Binding Properties of Biomolecular Receptors. Acc Chem Res. 2016 Sep 20; 49(9):1884-92. PMID: 27564548.
      View in: PubMed
    21. Mao X, Simon AJ, Pei H, Shi J, Li J, Huang Q, Plaxco KW, Fan C. Activity modulation and allosteric control of a scaffolded DNAzyme using a dynamic DNA nanostructure. Chem Sci. 2016 Feb 01; 7(2):1200-1204. PMID: 29910875.
      View in: PubMed
    22. Ranallo S, Rossetti M, Plaxco KW, Vallée-Bélisle A, Ricci F. A Modular, DNA-Based Beacon for Single-Step Fluorescence Detection of Antibodies and Other Proteins. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2015 Nov 02; 54(45):13214-8. PMID: 26337144; PMCID: PMC4757636 [Available on 11/02/16].
    23. Watkins HM, Simon AJ, Sosnick TR, Lipman EA, Hjelm RP, Plaxco KW. Random coil negative control reproduces the discrepancy between scattering and FRET measurements of denatured protein dimensions. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 May 26; 112(21):6631-6. PMID: 25964362; PMCID: PMC4450392.
    24. Vinh NQ, Sherwin MS, Allen SJ, George DK, Rahmani AJ, Plaxco KW. High-precision gigahertz-to-terahertz spectroscopy of aqueous salt solutions as a probe of the femtosecond-to-picosecond dynamics of liquid water. J Chem Phys. 2015 Apr 28; 142(16):164502. PMID: 25933769.
      View in: PubMed
    25. Hsieh K, Ferguson BS, Eisenstein M, Plaxco KW, Soh HT. Integrated electrochemical microsystems for genetic detection of pathogens at the point of care. Acc Chem Res. 2015 Apr 21; 48(4):911-20. PMID: 25785632.
      View in: PubMed
    26. Adornetto G, Porchetta A, Palleschi G, Plaxco KW, Ricci F. A general approach to the design of allosteric, transcription factor-regulated DNAzymes. Chem Sci. 2015 Jul 15; 6(7):3692-3696. PMID: 28706715.
      View in: PubMed
    27. Simon AJ, Vallée-Bélisle A, Ricci F, Plaxco KW. Intrinsic disorder as a generalizable strategy for the rational design of highly responsive, allosterically cooperative receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Oct 21; 111(42):15048-53. PMID: 25288724; PMCID: PMC4210277.
    28. Simon AJ, Vallée-Bélisle A, Ricci F, Watkins HM, Plaxco KW. Using the population-shift mechanism to rationally introduce "Hill-type" cooperativity into a normally non-cooperative receptor. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2014 Sep 01; 53(36):9471-5. PMID: 25044647.
      View in: PubMed
    29. Watkins HM, Simon AJ, Ricci F, Plaxco KW. Effects of crowding on the stability of a surface-tethered biopolymer: an experimental study of folding in a highly crowded regime. J Am Chem Soc. 2014 Jun 25; 136(25):8923-7. PMID: 24919057; PMCID: PMC4091282.
    30. Yang AH, Hsieh K, Patterson AS, Ferguson BS, Eisenstein M, Plaxco KW, Soh HT. Accurate zygote-specific discrimination of single-nucleotide polymorphisms using microfluidic electrochemical DNA melting curves. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2014 Mar 17; 53(12):3163-7. PMID: 24520069; PMCID: PMC3992926.
    31. Lawrence C, Vallée-Bélisle A, Pfeil SH, de Mornay D, Lipman EA, Plaxco KW. A comparison of the folding kinetics of a small, artificially selected DNA aptamer with those of equivalently simple naturally occurring proteins. Protein Sci. 2014 Jan; 23(1):56-66. PMID: 24285472; PMCID: PMC3892299.
    32. Ferguson BS, Hoggarth DA, Maliniak D, Ploense K, White RJ, Woodward N, Hsieh K, Bonham AJ, Eisenstein M, Kippin TE, Plaxco KW, Soh HT. Real-time, aptamer-based tracking of circulating therapeutic agents in living animals. Sci Transl Med. 2013 Nov 27; 5(213):213ra165. PMID: 24285484; PMCID: PMC4010950.
    33. Idili A, Plaxco KW, Vallée-Bélisle A, Ricci F. Thermodynamic basis for engineering high-affinity, high-specificity binding-induced DNA clamp nanoswitches. ACS Nano. 2013 Dec 23; 7(12):10863-9. PMID: 24219761; PMCID: PMC4281346.
    34. Patterson AS, Hsieh K, Soh HT, Plaxco KW. Electrochemical real-time nucleic acid amplification: towards point-of-care quantification of pathogens. Trends Biotechnol. 2013 Dec; 31(12):704-12. PMID: 24209384.
      View in: PubMed
    35. Bonham AJ, Paden NG, Ricci F, Plaxco KW. Detection of IP-10 protein marker in undiluted blood serum via an electrochemical E-DNA scaffold sensor. Analyst. 2013 Oct 07; 138(19):5580-3. PMID: 23905162; PMCID: PMC3956051.
    36. Porchetta A, Vallée-Bélisle A, Plaxco KW, Ricci F. Allosterically tunable, DNA-based switches triggered by heavy metals. J Am Chem Soc. 2013 Sep 11; 135(36):13238-41. PMID: 23971651; PMCID: PMC3831027.
    37. Esteban Fernández de Ávila B, Watkins HM, Pingarrón JM, Plaxco KW, Palleschi G, Ricci F. Determinants of the detection limit and specificity of surface-based biosensors. Anal Chem. 2013 Jul 16; 85(14):6593-7. PMID: 23713910.
      View in: PubMed
    38. Uzawa T, Isoshima T, Ito Y, Ishimori K, Makarov DE, Plaxco KW. Sequence and temperature dependence of the end-to-end collision dynamics of single-stranded DNA. Biophys J. 2013 Jun 04; 104(11):2485-92. PMID: 23746521; PMCID: PMC3672875.
    39. Patterson AS, Heithoff DM, Ferguson BS, Soh HT, Mahan MJ, Plaxco KW. Microfluidic chip-based detection and intraspecies strain discrimination of Salmonella serovars derived from whole blood of septic mice. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2013 Apr; 79(7):2302-11. PMID: 23354710; PMCID: PMC3623251.
    40. Porchetta A, Vallée-Bélisle A, Plaxco KW, Ricci F. Using distal-site mutations and allosteric inhibition to tune, extend, and narrow the useful dynamic range of aptamer-based sensors. J Am Chem Soc. 2012 Dec 26; 134(51):20601-4. PMID: 23215257; PMCID: PMC3866043.
    41. Vallée-Bélisle A, Ricci F, Uzawa T, Xia F, Plaxco KW. Bioelectrochemical switches for the quantitative detection of antibodies directly in whole blood. J Am Chem Soc. 2012 Sep 19; 134(37):15197-200. PMID: 22913425; PMCID: PMC3866042.
    42. Ricci F, Vallée-Bélisle A, Porchetta A, Plaxco KW. Rational design of allosteric inhibitors and activators using the population-shift model: in vitro validation and application to an artificial biosensor. J Am Chem Soc. 2012 Sep 19; 134(37):15177-80. PMID: 22924432; PMCID: PMC3523727.
    43. Kang D, Vallée-Bélisle A, Porchetta A, Plaxco KW, Ricci F. Re-engineering electrochemical biosensors to narrow or extend their useful dynamic range. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2012 Jul 02; 51(27):6717-21. PMID: 22674785; PMCID: PMC3482547.
    44. Hsieh K, Patterson AS, Ferguson BS, Plaxco KW, Soh HT. Rapid, sensitive, and quantitative detection of pathogenic DNA at the point of care through microfluidic electrochemical quantitative loop-mediated isothermal amplification. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2012 May 14; 51(20):4896-900. PMID: 22488842; PMCID: PMC3509743.
    45. Bonham AJ, Hsieh K, Ferguson BS, Vallée-Bélisle A, Ricci F, Soh HT, Plaxco KW. Quantification of transcription factor binding in cell extracts using an electrochemical, structure-switching biosensor. J Am Chem Soc. 2012 Feb 22; 134(7):3346-8. PMID: 22313286; PMCID: PMC3523731.
    46. Vallée-Bélisle A, Ricci F, Plaxco KW. Engineering biosensors with extended, narrowed, or arbitrarily edited dynamic range. J Am Chem Soc. 2012 Feb 15; 134(6):2876-9. PMID: 22239688; PMCID: PMC3522460.
    47. Yoo TY, Meisburger SP, Hinshaw J, Pollack L, Haran G, Sosnick TR, Plaxco K. Small-angle X-ray scattering and single-molecule FRET spectroscopy produce highly divergent views of the low-denaturant unfolded state. J Mol Biol. 2012 May 04; 418(3-4):226-36. PMID: 22306460; PMCID: PMC3523729.
    48. Watkins HM, Vallée-Bélisle A, Ricci F, Makarov DE, Plaxco KW. Entropic and electrostatic effects on the folding free energy of a surface-attached biomolecule: an experimental and theoretical study. J Am Chem Soc. 2012 Feb 01; 134(4):2120-6. PMID: 22239220; PMCID: PMC3866038.
    49. White RJ, Kallewaard HM, Hsieh W, Patterson AS, Kasehagen JB, Cash KJ, Uzawa T, Soh HT, Plaxco KW. Wash-free, electrochemical platform for the quantitative, multiplexed detection of specific antibodies. Anal Chem. 2012 Jan 17; 84(2):1098-103. PMID: 22145706; PMCID: PMC3523736.
    50. Perez Rafael S, Vallée-Bélisle A, Fabregas E, Plaxco K, Palleschi G, Ricci F. Employing the metabolic "branch point effect" to generate an all-or-none, digital-like response in enzymatic outputs and enzyme-based sensors. Anal Chem. 2012 Jan 17; 84(2):1076-82. PMID: 22148353; PMCID: PMC3893712.
    51. Zuo X, Xia F, Patterson A, Soh HT, Xiao Y, Plaxco KW. Two-step, PCR-free telomerase detection by using exonuclease III-aided target recycling. Chembiochem. 2011 Dec 16; 12(18):2745-7. PMID: 22125097.
      View in: PubMed
    52. Rowe AA, Chuh KN, Lubin AA, Miller EA, Cook B, Hollis D, Plaxco KW. Electrochemical biosensors employing an internal electrode attachment site and achieving reversible, high gain detection of specific nucleic acid sequences. Anal Chem. 2011 Dec 15; 83(24):9462-6. PMID: 21975121; PMCID: PMC3249395.
    53. Ricci F, Vallée-Bélisle A, Plaxco KW. High-precision, in vitro validation of the sequestration mechanism for generating ultrasensitive dose-response curves in regulatory networks. PLoS Comput Biol. 2011 Oct; 7(10):e1002171. PMID: 21998566; PMCID: PMC3188500.
    54. Hsieh K, White RJ, Ferguson BS, Plaxco KW, Xiao Y, Soh HT. Polarity-switching electrochemical sensor for specific detection of single-nucleotide mismatches. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2011 Nov 18; 50(47):11176-80. PMID: 21976312.
      View in: PubMed
    55. Biagiotti V, Porchetta A, Desiderati S, Plaxco KW, Palleschi G, Ricci F. Probe accessibility effects on the performance of electrochemical biosensors employing DNA monolayers. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2012 Jan; 402(1):413-21. PMID: 21928081.
      View in: PubMed
    56. Rowe AA, Bonham AJ, White RJ, Zimmer MP, Yadgar RJ, Hobza TM, Honea JW, Ben-Yaacov I, Plaxco KW. CheapStat: an open-source, "do-it-yourself" potentiostat for analytical and educational applications. PLoS One. 2011; 6(9):e23783. PMID: 21931613; PMCID: PMC3172209.
    57. Vallée-Bélisle A, Bonham AJ, Reich NO, Ricci F, Plaxco KW. Transcription factor beacons for the quantitative detection of DNA binding activity. J Am Chem Soc. 2011 Sep 07; 133(35):13836-9. PMID: 21815647; PMCID: PMC3866037.
    58. Rowe AA, White RJ, Bonham AJ, Plaxco KW. Fabrication of electrochemical-DNA biosensors for the reagentless detection of nucleic acids, proteins and small molecules. J Vis Exp. 2011 Jun 01; (52). PMID: 21673639; PMCID: PMC3197062.
    59. Vinh NQ, Allen SJ, Plaxco KW. Dielectric spectroscopy of proteins as a quantitative experimental test of computational models of their low-frequency harmonic motions. J Am Chem Soc. 2011 Jun 15; 133(23):8942-7. PMID: 21542634.
      View in: PubMed
    60. Cheng RR, Uzawa T, Plaxco KW, Makarov DE. Universality in the timescales of internal loop formation in unfolded proteins and single-stranded oligonucleotides. Biophys J. 2010 Dec 15; 99(12):3959-68. PMID: 21156138; PMCID: PMC3000509.
    61. Plaxco KW. The art of writing science. Protein Sci. 2010 Dec; 19(12):2261-6. PMID: 20954234; PMCID: PMC3009394.
    62. Plaxco KW, Soh HT. Switch-based biosensors: a new approach towards real-time, in vivo molecular detection. Trends Biotechnol. 2011 Jan; 29(1):1-5. PMID: 21106266; PMCID: PMC3010506.
    63. Xiao Y, Dane KY, Uzawa T, Csordas A, Qian J, Soh HT, Daugherty PS, Lagally ET, Heeger AJ, Plaxco KW. Detection of telomerase activity in high concentration of cell lysates using primer-modified gold nanoparticles. J Am Chem Soc. 2010 Nov 03; 132(43):15299-307. PMID: 20932008.
      View in: PubMed
    64. Uzawa T, Cheng RR, White RJ, Makarov DE, Plaxco KW. A mechanistic study of electron transfer from the distal termini of electrode-bound, single-stranded DNAs. J Am Chem Soc. 2010 Nov 17; 132(45):16120-6. PMID: 20964337; PMCID: PMC3026591.
    65. Xia F, White RJ, Zuo X, Patterson A, Xiao Y, Kang D, Gong X, Plaxco KW, Heeger AJ. An electrochemical supersandwich assay for sensitive and selective DNA detection in complex matrices. J Am Chem Soc. 2010 Oct 20; 132(41):14346-8. PMID: 20873767; PMCID: PMC3082473.
    66. Patterson A, Caprio F, Vallée-Bélisle A, Moscone D, Plaxco KW, Palleschi G, Ricci F. Using triplex-forming oligonucleotide probes for the reagentless, electrochemical detection of double-stranded DNA. Anal Chem. 2010 Nov 01; 82(21):9109-15. PMID: 20936782.
      View in: PubMed
    67. Abelow AE, Schepelina O, White RJ, Vallée-Bélisle A, Plaxco KW, Zharov I. Biomimetic glass nanopores employing aptamer gates responsive to a small molecule. Chem Commun (Camb). 2010 Nov 14; 46(42):7984-6. PMID: 20865192; PMCID: PMC3073859.
    68. Lawrence C, Kuge J, Ahmad K, Plaxco KW. Investigation of an anomalously accelerating substitution in the folding of a prototypical two-state protein. J Mol Biol. 2010 Oct 29; 403(3):446-58. PMID: 20816985; PMCID: PMC2965200.
    69. Rowe AA, Miller EA, Plaxco KW. Reagentless measurement of aminoglycoside antibiotics in blood serum via an electrochemical, ribonucleic acid aptamer-based biosensor. Anal Chem. 2010 Sep 01; 82(17):7090-5. PMID: 20687587; PMCID: PMC3082472.
    70. Xia F, Zuo X, Yang R, White RJ, Xiao Y, Kang D, Gong X, Lubin AA, Vallée-Bélisle A, Yuen JD, Hsu BY, Plaxco KW. Label-free, dual-analyte electrochemical biosensors: a new class of molecular-electronic logic gates. J Am Chem Soc. 2010 Jun 30; 132(25):8557-9. PMID: 20527878; PMCID: PMC3082468.
    71. Vallée-Bélisle A, Plaxco KW. Structure-switching biosensors: inspired by Nature. Curr Opin Struct Biol. 2010 Aug; 20(4):518-26. PMID: 20627702; PMCID: PMC3249393.
    72. Xia F, Zuo X, Yang R, Xiao Y, Kang D, Vallée-Bélisle A, Gong X, Yuen JD, Hsu BB, Heeger AJ, Plaxco KW. Colorimetric detection of DNA, small molecules, proteins, and ions using unmodified gold nanoparticles and conjugated polyelectrolytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Jun 15; 107(24):10837-41. PMID: 20534499; PMCID: PMC2890709.
    73. Lubin AA, Plaxco KW. Folding-based electrochemical biosensors: the case for responsive nucleic acid architectures. Acc Chem Res. 2010 Apr 20; 43(4):496-505. PMID: 20201486; PMCID: PMC2948786.
    74. Wickersham CE, Cash KJ, Pfeil SH, Bruck I, Kaplan DL, Plaxco KW, Lipman EA. Tracking a molecular motor with a nanoscale optical encoder. Nano Lett. 2010 Mar 10; 10(3):1022-7. PMID: 20121107; PMCID: PMC2842186.
    75. Zuo X, Xia F, Xiao Y, Plaxco KW. Sensitive and selective amplified fluorescence DNA detection based on exonuclease III-aided target recycling. J Am Chem Soc. 2010 Feb 17; 132(6):1816-8. PMID: 20092337.
      View in: PubMed
    76. Xia F, Zuo X, Yang R, Xiao Y, Kang D, Vallée-Bélisle A, Gong X, Heeger AJ, Plaxco KW. On the binding of cationic, water-soluble conjugated polymers to DNA: electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. J Am Chem Soc. 2010 Feb 03; 132(4):1252-4. PMID: 20058862; PMCID: PMC2846820.
    77. White RJ, Rowe AA, Plaxco KW. Re-engineering aptamers to support reagentless, self-reporting electrochemical sensors. Analyst. 2010 Mar; 135(3):589-94. PMID: 20174715; PMCID: PMC2861036.
    78. Ricci F, Adornetto G, Moscone D, Plaxco KW, Palleschi G. Quantitative, reagentless, single-step electrochemical detection of anti-DNA antibodies directly in blood serum. Chem Commun (Camb). 2010 Mar 14; 46(10):1742-4. PMID: 20177635; PMCID: PMC3082467.
    79. White RJ, Plaxco KW. Exploiting binding-induced changes in probe flexibility for the optimization of electrochemical biosensors. Anal Chem. 2010 Jan 01; 82(1):73-6. PMID: 20000457; PMCID: PMC2802819.
    80. Kang D, Zuo X, Yang R, Xia F, Plaxco KW, White RJ. Comparing the properties of electrochemical-based DNA sensors employing different redox tags. Anal Chem. 2009 Nov 01; 81(21):9109-13. PMID: 19810694; PMCID: PMC2783686.
    81. Xiao Y, Lou X, Uzawa T, Plakos KJ, Plaxco KW, Soh HT. An electrochemical sensor for single nucleotide polymorphism detection in serum based on a triple-stem DNA probe. J Am Chem Soc. 2009 Oct 28; 131(42):15311-6. PMID: 19807078; PMCID: PMC2783950.
    82. Cheng RR, Uzawa T, Plaxco KW, Makarov DE. The rate of intramolecular loop formation in DNA and polypeptides: the absence of the diffusion-controlled limit and fractional power-law viscosity dependence. J Phys Chem B. 2009 Oct 22; 113(42):14026-34. PMID: 19780594; PMCID: PMC2861051.
    83. Kohn JE, Gillespie B, Plaxco KW. Non-sequence-specific interactions can account for the compaction of proteins unfolded under "native" conditions. J Mol Biol. 2009 Nov 27; 394(2):343-50. PMID: 19751743; PMCID: PMC3249391.
    84. Cash KJ, Ricci F, Plaxco KW. A general electrochemical method for label-free screening of protein-small molecule interactions. Chem Commun (Camb). 2009 Nov 07; (41):6222-4. PMID: 19826675; PMCID: PMC2861035.
    85. Makarov DE, Plaxco KW. Measuring distances within unfolded biopolymers using fluorescence resonance energy transfer: The effect of polymer chain dynamics on the observed fluorescence resonance energy transfer efficiency. J Chem Phys. 2009 Aug 28; 131(8):085105. PMID: 19725638; PMCID: PMC2754924.
    86. Vallée-Bélisle A, Ricci F, Plaxco KW. Thermodynamic basis for the optimization of binding-induced biomolecular switches and structure-switching biosensors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Aug 18; 106(33):13802-7. PMID: 19666496; PMCID: PMC2728975.
    87. Uzawa T, Cheng RR, Cash KJ, Makarov DE, Plaxco KW. The length and viscosity dependence of end-to-end collision rates in single-stranded DNA. Biophys J. 2009 Jul 08; 97(1):205-10. PMID: 19580758; PMCID: PMC2711352.
    88. Xiao Y, Uzawa T, White RJ, Demartini D, Plaxco KW. On the Signaling of Electrochemical Aptamer-Based Sensors: Collision- and Folding-Based Mechanisms. Electroanalysis. 2009 Jun 01; 21(11):1267-1271. PMID: 20436787.
      View in: PubMed
    89. Zuo X, Xiao Y, Plaxco KW. High specificity, electrochemical sandwich assays based on single aptamer sequences and suitable for the direct detection of small-molecule targets in blood and other complex matrices. J Am Chem Soc. 2009 May 27; 131(20):6944-5. PMID: 19419171; PMCID: PMC2994717.
    90. Cash KJ, Ricci F, Plaxco KW. An electrochemical sensor for the detection of protein-small molecule interactions directly in serum and other complex matrices. J Am Chem Soc. 2009 May 27; 131(20):6955-7. PMID: 19413316; PMCID: PMC2862979.
    91. Swensen JS, Xiao Y, Ferguson BS, Lubin AA, Lai RY, Heeger AJ, Plaxco KW, Soh HT. Continuous, real-time monitoring of cocaine in undiluted blood serum via a microfluidic, electrochemical aptamer-based sensor. J Am Chem Soc. 2009 Apr 01; 131(12):4262-6. PMID: 19271708; PMCID: PMC2715559.
    92. Ricci F, Zari N, Caprio F, Recine S, Amine A, Moscone D, Palleschi G, Plaxco KW. Surface chemistry effects on the performance of an electrochemical DNA sensor. Bioelectrochemistry. 2009 Sep; 76(1-2):208-13. PMID: 19362061; PMCID: PMC3866039.
    93. Lubin AA, Hunt BV, White RJ, Plaxco KW. Effects of probe length, probe geometry, and redox-tag placement on the performance of the electrochemical E-DNA sensor. Anal Chem. 2009 Mar 15; 81(6):2150-8. PMID: 19215066.
      View in: PubMed
    94. Ricci F, Bonham AJ, Mason AC, Reich NO, Plaxco KW. Reagentless, electrochemical approach for the specific detection of double- and single-stranded DNA binding proteins. Anal Chem. 2009 Feb 15; 81(4):1608-14. PMID: 19199570; PMCID: PMC2692654.
    95. Phares N, White RJ, Plaxco KW. Improving the stability and sensing of electrochemical biosensors by employing trithiol-anchoring groups in a six-carbon self-assembled monolayer. Anal Chem. 2009 Feb 01; 81(3):1095-100. PMID: 19133790; PMCID: PMC3956047.
    96. Ruczinski I, Plaxco KW. Some recommendations for the practitioner to improve the precision of experimentally determined protein folding rates and phi values. Proteins. 2009 Feb 01; 74(2):461-74. PMID: 18655053; PMCID: PMC2861052.
    97. Cash KJ, Heeger AJ, Plaxco KW, Xiao Y. Optimization of a reusable, DNA pseudoknot-based electrochemical sensor for sequence-specific DNA detection in blood serum. Anal Chem. 2009 Jan 15; 81(2):656-61. PMID: 19093760; PMCID: PMC2861039.
    98. Plaxco KW, Gross M. Protein complexes: the evolution of symmetry. Curr Biol. 2009 Jan 13; 19(1):R25-6. PMID: 19138586.
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    99. Oh KJ, Cash KJ, Plaxco KW. Beyond molecular beacons: optical sensors based on the binding-induced folding of proteins and polypeptides. Chemistry. 2009; 15(10):2244-51. PMID: 19191230; PMCID: PMC2692644.
    100. Xiao Y, Plakos KJ, Lou X, White RJ, Qian J, Plaxco KW, Soh HT. Fluorescence detection of single-nucleotide polymorphisms with a single, self-complementary, triple-stem DNA probe. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2009; 48(24):4354-8. PMID: 19431180; PMCID: PMC3053031.
    101. White RJ, Plaxco KW. Engineering New Aptamer Geometries for Electrochemical Aptamer-Based Sensors. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2009; 7321:732105. PMID: 20436792.
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    102. White RJ, Phares N, Lubin AA, Xiao Y, Plaxco KW. Optimization of electrochemical aptamer-based sensors via optimization of probe packing density and surface chemistry. Langmuir. 2008 Sep 16; 24(18):10513-8. PMID: 18690727; PMCID: PMC2674396.
    103. Pavel I, McCarney E, Elkhaled A, Morrill A, Plaxco K, Moskovits M. Label-Free SERS Detection of Small Proteins Modified to Act as Bifunctional Linkers. J Phys Chem C Nanomater Interfaces. 2008 Mar 11; 112(13):4880-4883. PMID: 19424458.
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    104. Pavlovic E, Lai RY, Wu TT, Ferguson BS, Sun R, Plaxco KW, Soh HT. Microfluidic device architecture for electrochemical patterning and detection of multiple DNA sequences. Langmuir. 2008 Feb 05; 24(3):1102-7. PMID: 18181654; PMCID: PMC2674397.
    105. Oh KJ, Cash KJ, Lubin AA, Plaxco KW. Chimeric peptide beacons: a direct polypeptide analog of DNA molecular beacons. Chem Commun (Camb). 2007 Dec 14; (46):4869-71. PMID: 18361352; PMCID: PMC2692638.
    106. Xiao Y, Qu X, Plaxco KW, Heeger AJ. Label-free electrochemical detection of DNA in blood serum via target-induced resolution of an electrode-bound DNA pseudoknot. J Am Chem Soc. 2007 Oct 03; 129(39):11896-7. PMID: 17850085.
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    107. Ricci F, Lai RY, Plaxco KW. Linear, redox modified DNA probes as electrochemical DNA sensors. Chem Commun (Camb). 2007 Sep 28; (36):3768-70. PMID: 17851622.
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    108. Wang Z, Plaxco KW, Makarov DE. Influence of local and residual structures on the scaling behavior and dimensions of unfolded proteins. Biopolymers. 2007 Jul; 86(4):321-8. PMID: 17450572.
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    109. Ricci F, Lai RY, Heeger AJ, Plaxco KW, Sumner JJ. Effect of molecular crowding on the response of an electrochemical DNA sensor. Langmuir. 2007 Jun 05; 23(12):6827-34. PMID: 17488132; PMCID: PMC2728052.
    110. Oh KJ, Cash KJ, Hugenberg V, Plaxco KW. Peptide beacons: a new design for polypeptide-based optical biosensors. Bioconjug Chem. 2007 May-Jun; 18(3):607-9. PMID: 17461545; PMCID: PMC2528055.
    111. Werner JH, McCarney ER, Keller RA, Plaxco KW, Goodwin PM. Increasing the resolution of single pair fluorescence resonance energy transfer measurements in solution via molecular cytometry. Anal Chem. 2007 May 01; 79(9):3509-13. PMID: 17385843.
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    112. Xiao Y, Rowe AA, Plaxco KW. Electrochemical detection of parts-per-billion lead via an electrode-bound DNAzyme assembly. J Am Chem Soc. 2007 Jan 17; 129(2):262-3. PMID: 17212391.
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    113. Xiao Y, Lai RY, Plaxco KW. Preparation of electrode-immobilized, redox-modified oligonucleotides for electrochemical DNA and aptamer-based sensing. Nat Protoc. 2007; 2(11):2875-80. PMID: 18007622.
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    114. Lai RY, Plaxco KW, Heeger AJ. Aptamer-based electrochemical detection of picomolar platelet-derived growth factor directly in blood serum. Anal Chem. 2007 Jan 01; 79(1):229-33. PMID: 17194144.
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    115. Lai RY, Seferos DS, Heeger AJ, Bazan GC, Plaxco KW. Comparison of the signaling and stability of electrochemical DNA sensors fabricated from 6- or 11-carbon self-assembled monolayers. Langmuir. 2006 Dec 05; 22(25):10796-800. PMID: 17129062.
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    116. Xu J, Plaxco KW, Allen SJ. Collective dynamics of lysozyme in water: terahertz absorption spectroscopy and comparison with theory. J Phys Chem B. 2006 Nov 30; 110(47):24255-9. PMID: 17125398.
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    117. Oh KJ, Cash KJ, Plaxco KW. Excimer-based peptide beacons: a convenient experimental approach for monitoring polypeptide-protein and polypeptide-oligonucleotide interactions. J Am Chem Soc. 2006 Nov 01; 128(43):14018-9. PMID: 17061871.
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    118. Xiao Y, Lubin AA, Baker BR, Plaxco KW, Heeger AJ. Single-step electronic detection of femtomolar DNA by target-induced strand displacement in an electrode-bound duplex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Nov 07; 103(45):16677-80. PMID: 17065320; PMCID: PMC1622927.
    119. Ruczinski I, Sosnick TR, Plaxco KW. Methods for the accurate estimation of confidence intervals on protein folding phi-values. Protein Sci. 2006 Oct; 15(10):2257-64. PMID: 17008714; PMCID: PMC2242395.
    120. Lubin AA, Lai RY, Baker BR, Heeger AJ, Plaxco KW. Sequence-specific, electronic detection of oligonucleotides in blood, soil, and foodstuffs with the reagentless, reusable E-DNA sensor. Anal Chem. 2006 Aug 15; 78(16):5671-7. PMID: 16906710.
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    121. Faísca PF, Plaxco KW. Cooperativity and the origins of rapid, single-exponential kinetics in protein folding. Protein Sci. 2006 Jul; 15(7):1608-18. PMID: 16815915; PMCID: PMC2242573.
    122. Xu J, Plaxco KW, Allen SJ. Probing the collective vibrational dynamics of a protein in liquid water by terahertz absorption spectroscopy. Protein Sci. 2006 May; 15(5):1175-81. PMID: 16641490; PMCID: PMC2242499.
    123. Baker BR, Lai RY, Wood MS, Doctor EH, Heeger AJ, Plaxco KW. An electronic, aptamer-based small-molecule sensor for the rapid, label-free detection of cocaine in adulterated samples and biological fluids. J Am Chem Soc. 2006 Mar 15; 128(10):3138-9. PMID: 16522082.
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    124. Lai RY, Lagally ET, Lee SH, Soh HT, Plaxco KW, Heeger AJ. Rapid, sequence-specific detection of unpurified PCR amplicons via a reusable, electrochemical sensor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Mar 14; 103(11):4017-21. PMID: 16537478; PMCID: PMC1449638.
    125. de los Rios MA, Muralidhara BK, Wildes D, Sosnick TR, Marqusee S, Wittung-Stafshede P, Plaxco KW, Ruczinski I. On the precision of experimentally determined protein folding rates and phi-values. Protein Sci. 2006 Mar; 15(3):553-63. PMID: 16501226; PMCID: PMC2249776.
    126. Lai RY, Lee SH, Soh HT, Plaxco KW, Heeger AJ. Differential labeling of closely spaced biosensor electrodes via electrochemical lithography. Langmuir. 2006 Feb 14; 22(4):1932-6. PMID: 16460130.
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    127. Xu J, Plaxco KW, Allen SJ. Absorption spectra of liquid water and aqueous buffers between 0.3 and 3.72 THz. J Chem Phys. 2006 Jan 21; 124(3):036101. PMID: 16438614.
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    128. Xiao Y, Piorek BD, Plaxco KW, Heeger AJ. A reagentless signal-on architecture for electronic, aptamer-based sensors via target-induced strand displacement. J Am Chem Soc. 2005 Dec 28; 127(51):17990-1. PMID: 16366535.
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    129. McCarney ER, Werner JH, Bernstein SL, Ruczinski I, Makarov DE, Goodwin PM, Plaxco KW. Site-specific dimensions across a highly denatured protein; a single molecule study. J Mol Biol. 2005 Sep 23; 352(3):672-82. PMID: 16095607.
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    130. de los Rios MA, Daneshi M, Plaxco KW. Experimental investigation of the frequency and substitution dependence of negative phi-values in two-state proteins. Biochemistry. 2005 Sep 13; 44(36):12160-7. PMID: 16142914.
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    131. Xiao Y, Lubin AA, Heeger AJ, Plaxco KW. Label-free electronic detection of thrombin in blood serum by using an aptamer-based sensor. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2005 Aug 26; 44(34):5456-9. PMID: 16044476.
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    132. Kohn JE, Plaxco KW. Engineering a signal transduction mechanism for protein-based biosensors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Aug 02; 102(31):10841-5. PMID: 16046542; PMCID: PMC1182433.
    133. McCarney ER, Kohn JE, Plaxco KW. Is there or isn't there? The case for (and against) residual structure in chemically denatured proteins. Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol. 2005 Jul-Aug; 40(4):181-9. PMID: 16126485.
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    134. Fan C, Plaxco KW, Heeger AJ. Biosensors based on binding-modulated donor-acceptor distances. Trends Biotechnol. 2005 Apr; 23(4):186-92. PMID: 15780710.
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    135. Maxwell KL, Wildes D, Zarrine-Afsar A, De Los Rios MA, Brown AG, Friel CT, Hedberg L, Horng JC, Bona D, Miller EJ, Vallée-Bélisle A, Main ER, Bemporad F, Qiu L, Teilum K, Vu ND, Edwards AM, Ruczinski I, Poulsen FM, Kragelund BB, Michnick SW, Chiti F, Bai Y, Hagen SJ, Serrano L, Oliveberg M, Raleigh DP, Wittung-Stafshede P, Radford SE, Jackson SE, Sosnick TR, Marqusee S, Davidson AR, Plaxco KW. Protein folding: defining a "standard" set of experimental conditions and a preliminary kinetic data set of two-state proteins. Protein Sci. 2005 Mar; 14(3):602-16. PMID: 15689503; PMCID: PMC2279278.
    136. Raleigh DP, Plaxco KW. The protein folding transition state: what are Phi-values really telling us? Protein Pept Lett. 2005 Feb; 12(2):117-22. PMID: 15723637.
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    137. de Los Rios MA, Plaxco KW. Apparent Debye-Huckel electrostatic effects in the folding of a simple, single domain protein. Biochemistry. 2005 Feb 01; 44(4):1243-50. PMID: 15667218.
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    138. Kohn JE, Millett IS, Jacob J, Zagrovic B, Dillon TM, Cingel N, Dothager RS, Seifert S, Thiyagarajan P, Sosnick TR, Hasan MZ, Pande VS, Ruczinski I, Doniach S, Plaxco KW. Random-coil behavior and the dimensions of chemically unfolded proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Aug 24; 101(34):12491-6. PMID: 15314214; PMCID: PMC515087.
    139. Gillespie B, Plaxco KW. Using protein folding rates to test protein folding theories. Annu Rev Biochem. 2004; 73:837-59. PMID: 15189160.
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    140. Ivankov DN, Garbuzynskiy SO, Alm E, Plaxco KW, Baker D, Finkelstein AV. Contact order revisited: influence of protein size on the folding rate. Protein Sci. 2003 Sep; 12(9):2057-62. PMID: 12931003; PMCID: PMC2324001.
    141. Gillespie B, Vu DM, Shah PS, Marshall SA, Dyer RB, Mayo SL, Plaxco KW. NMR and temperature-jump measurements of de novo designed proteins demonstrate rapid folding in the absence of explicit selection for kinetics. J Mol Biol. 2003 Jul 18; 330(4):813-9. PMID: 12850149.
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    142. Fan C, Plaxco KW, Heeger AJ. Electrochemical interrogation of conformational changes as a reagentless method for the sequence-specific detection of DNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Aug 05; 100(16):9134-7. PMID: 12867594; PMCID: PMC170884.
    143. Calloni G, Taddei N, Plaxco KW, Ramponi G, Stefani M, Chiti F. Comparison of the folding processes of distantly related proteins. Importance of hydrophobic content in folding. J Mol Biol. 2003 Jul 11; 330(3):577-91. PMID: 12842473.
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    144. Fan C, Wang S, Hong JW, Bazan GC, Plaxco KW, Heeger AJ. Beyond superquenching: hyper-efficient energy transfer from conjugated polymers to gold nanoparticles. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 May 27; 100(11):6297-301. PMID: 12750470; PMCID: PMC164440.
    145. Jewett AI, Pande VS, Plaxco KW. Cooperativity, smooth energy landscapes and the origins of topology-dependent protein folding rates. J Mol Biol. 2003 Feb 07; 326(1):247-53. PMID: 12547206.
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    146. Xu J, Ramian GJ, Galan JF, Savvidis PG, Scopatz AM, Birge RR, Allen SJ, Plaxco KW. Terahertz circular dichroism spectroscopy: a potential approach to the in situ detection of life's metabolic and genetic machinery. Astrobiology. 2003; 3(3):489-504. PMID: 14678660.
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    147. Makarov DE, Plaxco KW. The topomer search model: A simple, quantitative theory of two-state protein folding kinetics. Protein Sci. 2003 Jan; 12(1):17-26. PMID: 12493824; PMCID: PMC2312397.
    148. Thompson JB, Hansma HG, Hansma PK, Plaxco KW. The backbone conformational entropy of protein folding: experimental measures from atomic force microscopy. J Mol Biol. 2002 Sep 20; 322(3):645-52. PMID: 12225756.
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    149. Fan C, Plaxco KW, Heeger AJ. High-efficiency fluorescence quenching of conjugated polymers by proteins. J Am Chem Soc. 2002 May 22; 124(20):5642-3. PMID: 12010029.
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    150. Makarov DE, Keller CA, Plaxco KW, Metiu H. How the folding rate constant of simple, single-domain proteins depends on the number of native contacts. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Mar 19; 99(6):3535-9. PMID: 11904417; PMCID: PMC122558.
    151. Larson SM, Ruczinski I, Davidson AR, Baker D, Plaxco KW. Residues participating in the protein folding nucleus do not exhibit preferential evolutionary conservation. J Mol Biol. 2002 Feb 15; 316(2):225-33. PMID: 11851333.
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    152. Millet IS, Townsley LE, Chiti F, Doniach S, Plaxco KW. Equilibrium collapse and the kinetic 'foldability' of proteins. Biochemistry. 2002 Jan 08; 41(1):321-5. PMID: 11772031.
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    153. Millett IS, Doniach S, Plaxco KW. Toward a taxonomy of the denatured state: small angle scattering studies of unfolded proteins. Adv Protein Chem. 2002; 62:241-62. PMID: 12418105.
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    154. Plaxco KW, Gross M. Unfolded, yes, but random? Never! Nat Struct Biol. 2001 Aug; 8(8):659-60. PMID: 11473247.
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    155. Gillespie B, Plaxco KW. Nonglassy kinetics in the folding of a simple single-domain protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000 Oct 24; 97(22):12014-9. PMID: 11050233; PMCID: PMC17286.
    156. Plaxco KW, Simons KT, Ruczinski I, Baker D. Topology, stability, sequence, and length: defining the determinants of two-state protein folding kinetics. Biochemistry. 2000 Sep 19; 39(37):11177-83. PMID: 10985762.
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    157. Plaxco KW, Larson S, Ruczinski I, Riddle DS, Thayer EC, Buchwitz B, Davidson AR, Baker D. Evolutionary conservation in protein folding kinetics. J Mol Biol. 2000 Apr 28; 298(2):303-12. PMID: 10764599.
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    158. Plaxco KW, Millett IS, Segel DJ, Doniach S, Baker D. Chain collapse can occur concomitantly with the rate-limiting step in protein folding. Nat Struct Biol. 1999 Jun; 6(6):554-6. PMID: 10360359.
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    159. Plaxco KW, Baker D. Limited internal friction in the rate-limiting step of a two-state protein folding reaction. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998 Nov 10; 95(23):13591-6. PMID: 9811844; PMCID: PMC24863.
    160. Plaxco KW, Simons KT, Baker D. Contact order, transition state placement and the refolding rates of single domain proteins. J Mol Biol. 1998 Apr 10; 277(4):985-94. PMID: 9545386.
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    161. Guijarro JI, Morton CJ, Plaxco KW, Campbell ID, Dobson CM. Folding kinetics of the SH3 domain of PI3 kinase by real-time NMR combined with optical spectroscopy. J Mol Biol. 1998 Feb 27; 276(3):657-67. PMID: 9551103.
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    162. Plaxco KW, Guijarro JI, Morton CJ, Pitkeathly M, Campbell ID, Dobson CM. The folding kinetics and thermodynamics of the Fyn-SH3 domain. Biochemistry. 1998 Feb 24; 37(8):2529-37. PMID: 9485402.
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    163. Plaxco KW, Riddle DS, Grantcharova V, Baker D. Simplified proteins: minimalist solutions to the 'protein folding problem'. Curr Opin Struct Biol. 1998 Feb; 8(1):80-5. PMID: 9519299.
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    164. Plaxco KW, Spitzfaden C, Campbell ID, Dobson CM. A comparison of the folding kinetics and thermodynamics of two homologous fibronectin type III modules. J Mol Biol. 1997 Aug 01; 270(5):763-70. PMID: 9245603.
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    165. Gross M, Plaxco KW. Protein engineering. Reading, writing and redesigning. Nature. 1997 Jul 31; 388(6641):419-20. PMID: 9242395.
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    166. O'Brien R, Wynn R, Driscoll PC, Davis B, Plaxco KW, Sturtevant JM, Ladbury JE. The adaptability of Escherichia coli thioredoxin to non-conservative amino acid substitutions. Protein Sci. 1997 Jun; 6(6):1325-32. PMID: 9194193; PMCID: PMC2143707.
    167. Plaxco KW, Gross M. Cell biology. The importance of being unfolded. Nature. 1997 Apr 17; 386(6626):657, 659. PMID: 9109481.
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    168. Plaxco KW, Dobson CM. Time-resolved biophysical methods in the study of protein folding. Curr Opin Struct Biol. 1996 Oct; 6(5):630-6. PMID: 8913685.
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