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Sofroniew Michael

Title(s)Professor, Neurobiology
Phone310 206 2262
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    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    Engineering astroglial bridges for axons across severe SCI lesions
    NIH/NINDS R01NS084030Aug 1, 2014 - Mar 31, 2024
    Role: Principal Investigator
    An approach to image calcium in small volumes of astrocytes in vivo
    NIH/NINDS R21NS071292Jul 1, 2010 - Jun 30, 2012
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator
    Molecular Dissection of Reactive Astrogliosis: STAT3
    NIH/NINDS R01NS057624Jan 15, 2008 - Jun 30, 2013
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Biology of GFAP-expressing neural progenitors
    NIH/NINDS R01NS047386Jan 1, 2004 - Dec 31, 2008
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Molecular Dissection of Reactive Astrocyte Biology
    NIH/NINDS R21NS042693Jul 1, 2002 - May 31, 2005
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Reactive scar-forming astrocytes after spinal cord injur
    NIH/NINDS R21NS042039Jul 15, 2001 - Jun 30, 2005
    Role: Principal Investigator

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Tassoni A, Farkhondeh V, Itoh Y, Itoh N, Sofroniew MV, Voskuhl RR. The astrocyte transcriptome in EAE optic neuritis shows complement activation and reveals a sex difference in astrocytic C3 expression. Sci Rep. 2019 Jul 10; 9(1):10010. PMID: 31292459.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Courtine G, Sofroniew MV. Spinal cord repair: advances in biology and technology. Nat Med. 2019 06; 25(6):898-908. PMID: 31160817.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Liddelow SA, Sofroniew MV. Astrocytes usurp neurons as a disease focus. Nat Neurosci. 2019 04; 22(4):512-513. PMID: 30858602.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Sofroniew MV. Stem-Cell-Derived Astrocytes Divulge Secrets of Mutant GFAP. Cell Stem Cell. 2018 Nov 01; 23(5):630-631. PMID: 30388417.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Anderson MA, O'Shea TM, Burda JE, Ao Y, Barlatey SL, Bernstein AM, Kim JH, James ND, Rogers A, Kato B, Wollenberg AL, Kawaguchi R, Coppola G, Wang C, Deming TJ, He Z, Courtine G, Sofroniew MV. Required growth facilitators propel axon regeneration across complete spinal cord injury. Nature. 2018 09; 561(7723):396-400. PMID: 30158698.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Sofroniew MV. Dissecting spinal cord regeneration. Nature. 2018 05; 557(7705):343-350. PMID: 29769671.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Itoh N, Itoh Y, Tassoni A, Ren E, Kaito M, Ohno A, Ao Y, Farkhondeh V, Johnsonbaugh H, Burda J, Sofroniew MV, Voskuhl RR. Cell-specific and region-specific transcriptomics in the multiple sclerosis model: Focus on astrocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018 01 09; 115(2):E302-E309. PMID: 29279367.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Sun Y, Wollenberg AL, O'Shea TM, Cui Y, Zhou ZH, Sofroniew MV, Deming TJ. Conformation-Directed Formation of Self-Healing Diblock Copolypeptide Hydrogels via Polyion Complexation. J Am Chem Soc. 2017 10 25; 139(42):15114-15121. PMID: 28976744.
      View in: PubMed
    9. O'Shea TM, Burda JE, Sofroniew MV. Cell biology of spinal cord injury and repair. J Clin Invest. 2017 Sep 01; 127(9):3259-3270. PMID: 28737515.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Horng S, Therattil A, Moyon S, Gordon A, Kim K, Argaw AT, Hara Y, Mariani JN, Sawai S, Flodby P, Crandall ED, Borok Z, Sofroniew MV, Chapouly C, John GR. Astrocytic tight junctions control inflammatory CNS lesion pathogenesis. J Clin Invest. 2017 Aug 01; 127(8):3136-3151. PMID: 28737509.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Burda JE, Sofroniew MV. Seducing astrocytes to the dark side. Cell Res. 2017 Jun; 27(6):726-727. PMID: 28303889.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Ren Y, Ao Y, O'Shea TM, Burda JE, Bernstein AM, Brumm AJ, Muthusamy N, Ghashghaei HT, Carmichael ST, Cheng L, Sofroniew MV. Ependymal cell contribution to scar formation after spinal cord injury is minimal, local and dependent on direct ependymal injury. Sci Rep. 2017 01 24; 7:41122. PMID: 28117356.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Xu J, Bernstein AM, Wong A, Lu XH, Khoja S, Yang XW, Davies DL, Micevych P, Sofroniew MV, Khakh BS. P2X4 Receptor Reporter Mice: Sparse Brain Expression and Feeding-Related Presynaptic Facilitation in the Arcuate Nucleus. J Neurosci. 2016 08 24; 36(34):8902-20. PMID: 27559172; PMCID: PMC4995303 [Available on 02/24/17].
    14. Anderson MA, Burda JE, Ren Y, Ao Y, O'Shea TM, Kawaguchi R, Coppola G, Khakh BS, Deming TJ, Sofroniew MV. Astrocyte scar formation aids central nervous system axon regeneration. Nature. 2016 Apr 14; 532(7598):195-200. PMID: 27027288.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Levine J, Kwon E, Paez P, Yan W, Czerwieniec G, Loo JA, Sofroniew MV, Wanner IB. Traumatically injured astrocytes release a proteomic signature modulated by STAT3-dependent cell survival. Glia. 2016 May; 64(5):668-94. PMID: 26683444; PMCID: PMC4805454 [Available on 05/01/17].
    16. Pekny M, Pekna M, Messing A, Steinhäuser C, Lee JM, Parpura V, Hol EM, Sofroniew MV, Verkhratsky A. Astrocytes: a central element in neurological diseases. Acta Neuropathol. 2016 Mar; 131(3):323-45. PMID: 26671410.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Duan H, Ge W, Zhang A, Xi Y, Chen Z, Luo D, Cheng Y, Fan KS, Horvath S, Sofroniew MV, Cheng L, Yang Z, Sun YE, Li X. Transcriptome analyses reveal molecular mechanisms underlying functional recovery after spinal cord injury. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 Oct 27; 112(43):13360-5. PMID: 26460053; PMCID: PMC4629389.
    18. Khakh BS, Sofroniew MV. Diversity of astrocyte functions and phenotypes in neural circuits. Nat Neurosci. 2015 Jul; 18(7):942-52. PMID: 26108722.
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    19. Zhang S, Burda JE, Anderson MA, Zhao Z, Ao Y, Cheng Y, Sun Y, Deming TJ, Sofroniew MV. Thermoresponsive Copolypeptide Hydrogel Vehicles for Central Nervous System Cell Delivery. ACS Biomater Sci Eng. 2015 Aug 10; 1(8):705-717. PMID: 27547820.
      View in: PubMed
    20. Sofroniew MV. Astrocyte barriers to neurotoxic inflammation. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2015 May; 16(5):249-63. PMID: 25891508.
      View in: PubMed
    21. Burda JE, Bernstein AM, Sofroniew MV. Astrocyte roles in traumatic brain injury. Exp Neurol. 2016 Jan; 275 Pt 3:305-315. PMID: 25828533; PMCID: PMC4586307 [Available on 01/01/17].
    22. Zhang S, Alvarez DJ, Sofroniew MV, Deming TJ. Design and synthesis of nonionic copolypeptide hydrogels with reversible thermoresponsive and tunable physical properties. Biomacromolecules. 2015 Apr 13; 16(4):1331-40. PMID: 25748800.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Jiang R, Haustein MD, Sofroniew MV, Khakh BS. Imaging intracellular Ca²? signals in striatal astrocytes from adult mice using genetically-encoded calcium indicators. J Vis Exp. 2014 Nov 19; (93):e51972. PMID: 25490346.
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    24. Sofroniew MV. Astrogliosis. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2014 Nov 07; 7(2):a020420. PMID: 25380660.
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    25. Verkhratsky A, Parpura V, Pekna M, Pekny M, Sofroniew M. Glia in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Biochem Soc Trans. 2014 Oct; 42(5):1291-301. PMID: 25233406.
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    26. O'Callaghan JP, Kelly KA, VanGilder RL, Sofroniew MV, Miller DB. Early activation of STAT3 regulates reactive astrogliosis induced by diverse forms of neurotoxicity. PLoS One. 2014; 9(7):e102003. PMID: 25025494; PMCID: PMC4098997.
    27. Kim RY, Hoffman AS, Itoh N, Ao Y, Spence R, Sofroniew MV, Voskuhl RR. Astrocyte CCL2 sustains immune cell infiltration in chronic experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. J Neuroimmunol. 2014 Sep 15; 274(1-2):53-61. PMID: 25005117; PMCID: PMC4343306.
    28. López-Valdés HE, Clarkson AN, Ao Y, Charles AC, Carmichael ST, Sofroniew MV, Brennan KC. Memantine enhances recovery from stroke. Stroke. 2014 Jul; 45(7):2093-2100. PMID: 24938836; PMCID: PMC4142682.
    29. Khakh BS, Sofroniew MV. Astrocytes and Huntington's disease. ACS Chem Neurosci. 2014 Jul 16; 5(7):494-6. PMID: 24842291.
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    30. Assi H, Espinosa J, Suprise S, Sofroniew M, Doherty R, Zamler D, Lowenstein PR, Castro MG. Assessing the role of STAT3 in DC differentiation and autologous DC immunotherapy in mouse models of GBM. PLoS One. 2014; 9(5):e96318. PMID: 24806510; PMCID: PMC4013007.
    31. Thomsen GM, Le Belle JE, Harnisch JA, Mc Donald WS, Hovda DA, Sofroniew MV, Kornblum HI, Harris NG. Traumatic brain injury reveals novel cell lineage relationships within the subventricular zone. Stem Cell Res. 2014 Jul; 13(1):48-60. PMID: 24835668; PMCID: PMC4096985.
    32. Tong X, Ao Y, Faas GC, Nwaobi SE, Xu J, Haustein MD, Anderson MA, Mody I, Olsen ML, Sofroniew MV, Khakh BS. Astrocyte Kir4.1 ion channel deficits contribute to neuronal dysfunction in Huntington's disease model mice. Nat Neurosci. 2014 May; 17(5):694-703. PMID: 24686787; PMCID: PMC4064471.
    33. Burda JE, Sofroniew MV. Reactive gliosis and the multicellular response to CNS damage and disease. Neuron. 2014 Jan 22; 81(2):229-48. PMID: 24462092; PMCID: PMC3984950.
    34. Anderson MA, Ao Y, Sofroniew MV. Heterogeneity of reactive astrocytes. Neurosci Lett. 2014 Apr 17; 565:23-9. PMID: 24361547; PMCID: PMC3984948.
    35. Zhang S, Anderson MA, Ao Y, Khakh BS, Fan J, Deming TJ, Sofroniew MV. Tunable diblock copolypeptide hydrogel depots for local delivery of hydrophobic molecules in healthy and injured central nervous system. Biomaterials. 2014 Feb; 35(6):1989-2000. PMID: 24314556; PMCID: PMC3984939.
    36. Sofroniew MV. Multiple roles for astrocytes as effectors of cytokines and inflammatory mediators. Neuroscientist. 2014 Apr; 20(2):160-72. PMID: 24106265.
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    37. Wanner IB, Anderson MA, Song B, Levine J, Fernandez A, Gray-Thompson Z, Ao Y, Sofroniew MV. Glial scar borders are formed by newly proliferated, elongated astrocytes that interact to corral inflammatory and fibrotic cells via STAT3-dependent mechanisms after spinal cord injury. J Neurosci. 2013 Jul 31; 33(31):12870-86. PMID: 23904622; PMCID: PMC3728693.
    38. Spence RD, Wisdom AJ, Cao Y, Hill HM, Mongerson CR, Stapornkul B, Itoh N, Sofroniew MV, Voskuhl RR. Estrogen mediates neuroprotection and anti-inflammatory effects during EAE through ERa signaling on astrocytes but not through ERß signaling on astrocytes or neurons. J Neurosci. 2013 Jun 26; 33(26):10924-33. PMID: 23804112; PMCID: PMC3693061.
    39. Shigetomi E, Bushong EA, Haustein MD, Tong X, Jackson-Weaver O, Kracun S, Xu J, Sofroniew MV, Ellisman MH, Khakh BS. Imaging calcium microdomains within entire astrocyte territories and endfeet with GCaMPs expressed using adeno-associated viruses. J Gen Physiol. 2013 May; 141(5):633-47. PMID: 23589582; PMCID: PMC3639581.
    40. Hamby ME, Coppola G, Ao Y, Geschwind DH, Khakh BS, Sofroniew MV. Inflammatory mediators alter the astrocyte transcriptome and calcium signaling elicited by multiple G-protein-coupled receptors. J Neurosci. 2012 Oct 17; 32(42):14489-510. PMID: 23077035; PMCID: PMC3518872.
    41. Song B, Song J, Zhang S, Anderson MA, Ao Y, Yang CY, Deming TJ, Sofroniew MV. Sustained local delivery of bioactive nerve growth factor in the central nervous system via tunable diblock copolypeptide hydrogel depots. Biomaterials. 2012 Dec; 33(35):9105-16. PMID: 22985994.
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    42. Nobuta H, Ghiani CA, Paez PM, Spreuer V, Dong H, Korsak RA, Manukyan A, Li J, Vinters HV, Huang EJ, Rowitch DH, Sofroniew MV, Campagnoni AT, de Vellis J, Waschek JA. STAT3-mediated astrogliosis protects myelin development in neonatal brain injury. Ann Neurol. 2012 Nov; 72(5):750-65. PMID: 22941903; PMCID: PMC3514566.
    43. Argaw AT, Asp L, Zhang J, Navrazhina K, Pham T, Mariani JN, Mahase S, Dutta DJ, Seto J, Kramer EG, Ferrara N, Sofroniew MV, John GR. Astrocyte-derived VEGF-A drives blood-brain barrier disruption in CNS inflammatory disease. J Clin Invest. 2012 Jul; 122(7):2454-68. PMID: 22653056; PMCID: PMC3386814.
    44. Verkhratsky A, Sofroniew MV, Messing A, deLanerolle NC, Rempe D, Rodríguez JJ, Nedergaard M. Neurological diseases as primary gliopathies: a reassessment of neurocentrism. ASN Neuro. 2012 Apr 05; 4(3). PMID: 22339481.
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    45. Cushman JD, Maldonado J, Kwon EE, Garcia AD, Fan G, Imura T, Sofroniew MV, Fanselow MS. Juvenile neurogenesis makes essential contributions to adult brain structure and plays a sex-dependent role in fear memories. Front Behav Neurosci. 2012; 6:3. PMID: 22347173; PMCID: PMC3270585.
    46. Sofroniew MV. Transgenic techniques for cell ablation or molecular deletion to investigate functions of astrocytes and other GFAP-expressing cell types. Methods Mol Biol. 2012; 814:531-44. PMID: 22144330.
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    47. Tao J, Wu H, Lin Q, Wei W, Lu XH, Cantle JP, Ao Y, Olsen RW, Yang XW, Mody I, Sofroniew MV, Sun YE. Deletion of astroglial Dicer causes non-cell-autonomous neuronal dysfunction and degeneration. J Neurosci. 2011 Jun 01; 31(22):8306-19. PMID: 21632951; PMCID: PMC3500097.
    48. Spence RD, Hamby ME, Umeda E, Itoh N, Du S, Wisdom AJ, Cao Y, Bondar G, Lam J, Ao Y, Sandoval F, Suriany S, Sofroniew MV, Voskuhl RR. Neuroprotection mediated through estrogen receptor-alpha in astrocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 May 24; 108(21):8867-72. PMID: 21555578; PMCID: PMC3102368.
    49. Wang X, Imura T, Sofroniew MV, Fushiki S. Loss of adenomatous polyposis coli in Bergmann glia disrupts their unique architecture and leads to cell nonautonomous neurodegeneration of cerebellar Purkinje neurons. Glia. 2011 Jun; 59(6):857-68. PMID: 21381115; PMCID: PMC3287075.
    50. Sofroniew MV. Neuromyelitis optica: circulating autoantibodies provoke astrocyte-mediated neural dysfunction. Neurology. 2011 Apr 05; 76(14):1202-3. PMID: 21368284.
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    51. Imura T, Wang X, Noda T, Sofroniew MV, Fushiki S. Adenomatous polyposis coli is essential for both neuronal differentiation and maintenance of adult neural stem cells in subventricular zone and hippocampus. Stem Cells. 2010 Nov; 28(11):2053-2064. PMID: 21089118; PMCID: PMC4524517.
    52. Hamby ME, Sofroniew MV. Reactive astrocytes as therapeutic targets for CNS disorders. Neurotherapeutics. 2010 Oct; 7(4):494-506. PMID: 20880511; PMCID: PMC2952540.
    53. Crawford DK, Mangiardi M, Song B, Patel R, Du S, Sofroniew MV, Voskuhl RR, Tiwari-Woodruff SK. Oestrogen receptor beta ligand: a novel treatment to enhance endogenous functional remyelination. Brain. 2010 Oct; 133(10):2999-3016. PMID: 20858739.
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    54. Shigetomi E, Kracun S, Sofroniew MV, Khakh BS. A genetically targeted optical sensor to monitor calcium signals in astrocyte processes. Nat Neurosci. 2010 Jun; 13(6):759-66. PMID: 20495558; PMCID: PMC2920135.
    55. Sarafian TA, Montes C, Imura T, Qi J, Coppola G, Geschwind DH, Sofroniew MV. Disruption of astrocyte STAT3 signaling decreases mitochondrial function and increases oxidative stress in vitro. PLoS One. 2010 Mar 10; 5(3):e9532. PMID: 20224768; PMCID: PMC2835741.
    56. Sofroniew MV, Vinters HV. Astrocytes: biology and pathology. Acta Neuropathol. 2010 Jan; 119(1):7-35. PMID: 20012068; PMCID: PMC2799634.
    57. Gregorian C, Nakashima J, Dry SM, Nghiemphu PL, Smith KB, Ao Y, Dang J, Lawson G, Mellinghoff IK, Mischel PS, Phelps M, Parada LF, Liu X, Sofroniew MV, Eilber FC, Wu H. PTEN dosage is essential for neurofibroma development and malignant transformation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Nov 17; 106(46):19479-84. PMID: 19846776.
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    58. Sofroniew MV. Molecular dissection of reactive astrogliosis and glial scar formation. Trends Neurosci. 2009 Dec; 32(12):638-47. PMID: 19782411; PMCID: PMC2787735.
    59. Courtine G, Gerasimenko Y, van den Brand R, Yew A, Musienko P, Zhong H, Song B, Ao Y, Ichiyama RM, Lavrov I, Roy RR, Sofroniew MV, Edgerton VR. Transformation of nonfunctional spinal circuits into functional states after the loss of brain input. Nat Neurosci. 2009 Oct; 12(10):1333-42. PMID: 19767747; PMCID: PMC2828944.
    60. Voskuhl RR, Peterson RS, Song B, Ao Y, Morales LB, Tiwari-Woodruff S, Sofroniew MV. Reactive astrocytes form scar-like perivascular barriers to leukocytes during adaptive immune inflammation of the CNS. J Neurosci. 2009 Sep 16; 29(37):11511-22. PMID: 19759299; PMCID: PMC2768309.
    61. Yang CY, Song B, Ao Y, Nowak AP, Abelowitz RB, Korsak RA, Havton LA, Deming TJ, Sofroniew MV. Biocompatibility of amphiphilic diblock copolypeptide hydrogels in the central nervous system. Biomaterials. 2009 May; 30(15):2881-98. PMID: 19251318.
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    62. Gregorian C, Nakashima J, Le Belle J, Ohab J, Kim R, Liu A, Smith KB, Groszer M, Garcia AD, Sofroniew MV, Carmichael ST, Kornblum HI, Liu X, Wu H. Pten deletion in adult neural stem/progenitor cells enhances constitutive neurogenesis. J Neurosci. 2009 Feb 11; 29(6):1874-86. PMID: 19211894; PMCID: PMC2754186.
    63. Herrmann JE, Imura T, Song B, Qi J, Ao Y, Nguyen TK, Korsak RA, Takeda K, Akira S, Sofroniew MV. STAT3 is a critical regulator of astrogliosis and scar formation after spinal cord injury. J Neurosci. 2008 Jul 09; 28(28):7231-43. PMID: 18614693; PMCID: PMC2583788.
    64. Shigetomi E, Bowser DN, Sofroniew MV, Khakh BS. Two forms of astrocyte calcium excitability have distinct effects on NMDA receptor-mediated slow inward currents in pyramidal neurons. J Neurosci. 2008 Jun 25; 28(26):6659-63. PMID: 18579739; PMCID: PMC2866443.
    65. Otis TS, Sofroniew MV. Glia get excited. Nat Neurosci. 2008 Apr; 11(4):379-80. PMID: 18368040.
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    66. Lepore AC, Dejea C, Carmen J, Rauck B, Kerr DA, Sofroniew MV, Maragakis NJ. Selective ablation of proliferating astrocytes does not affect disease outcome in either acute or chronic models of motor neuron degeneration. Exp Neurol. 2008 Jun; 211(2):423-32. PMID: 18410928.
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    67. Courtine G, Song B, Roy RR, Zhong H, Herrmann JE, Ao Y, Qi J, Edgerton VR, Sofroniew MV. Recovery of supraspinal control of stepping via indirect propriospinal relay connections after spinal cord injury. Nat Med. 2008 Jan; 14(1):69-74. PMID: 18157143; PMCID: PMC2916740.
    68. Savidge TC, Sofroniew MV, Neunlist M. Starring roles for astroglia in barrier pathologies of gut and brain. Lab Invest. 2007 Aug; 87(8):731-6. PMID: 17607301.
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    69. Saxe MD, Malleret G, Vronskaya S, Mendez I, Garcia AD, Sofroniew MV, Kandel ER, Hen R. Paradoxical influence of hippocampal neurogenesis on working memory. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Mar 13; 104(11):4642-6. PMID: 17360577; PMCID: PMC1810330.
    70. Savidge TC, Newman P, Pothoulakis C, Ruhl A, Neunlist M, Bourreille A, Hurst R, Sofroniew MV. Enteric glia regulate intestinal barrier function and inflammation via release of S-nitrosoglutathione. Gastroenterology. 2007 Apr; 132(4):1344-58. PMID: 17408650.
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    71. Saxe MD, Battaglia F, Wang JW, Malleret G, David DJ, Monckton JE, Garcia AD, Sofroniew MV, Kandel ER, Santarelli L, Hen R, Drew MR. Ablation of hippocampal neurogenesis impairs contextual fear conditioning and synaptic plasticity in the dentate gyrus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Nov 14; 103(46):17501-6. PMID: 17088541; PMCID: PMC1859958.
    72. Imura T, Nakano I, Kornblum HI, Sofroniew MV. Phenotypic and functional heterogeneity of GFAP-expressing cells in vitro: differential expression of LeX/CD15 by GFAP-expressing multipotent neural stem cells and non-neurogenic astrocytes. Glia. 2006 Feb; 53(3):277-93. PMID: 16267834.
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    73. Sofroniew MV. Reactive astrocytes in neural repair and protection. Neuroscientist. 2005 Oct; 11(5):400-7. PMID: 16151042.
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    74. Nakano I, Paucar AA, Bajpai R, Dougherty JD, Zewail A, Kelly TK, Kim KJ, Ou J, Groszer M, Imura T, Freije WA, Nelson SF, Sofroniew MV, Wu H, Liu X, Terskikh AV, Geschwind DH, Kornblum HI. Maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase (MELK) regulates multipotent neural progenitor proliferation. J Cell Biol. 2005 Aug 01; 170(3):413-27. PMID: 16061694; PMCID: PMC2171475.
    75. Garcia AD, Doan NB, Imura T, Bush TG, Sofroniew MV. GFAP-expressing progenitors are the principal source of constitutive neurogenesis in adult mouse forebrain. Nat Neurosci. 2004 Nov; 7(11):1233-41. PMID: 15494728.
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    76. Faulkner JR, Herrmann JE, Woo MJ, Tansey KE, Doan NB, Sofroniew MV. Reactive astrocytes protect tissue and preserve function after spinal cord injury. J Neurosci. 2004 Mar 03; 24(9):2143-55. PMID: 14999065.
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    77. Morshead CM, Garcia AD, Sofroniew MV, van Der Kooy D. The ablation of glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive cells from the adult central nervous system results in the loss of forebrain neural stem cells but not retinal stem cells. Eur J Neurosci. 2003 Jul; 18(1):76-84. PMID: 12859339.
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    78. Imura T, Kornblum HI, Sofroniew MV. The predominant neural stem cell isolated from postnatal and adult forebrain but not early embryonic forebrain expresses GFAP. J Neurosci. 2003 Apr 01; 23(7):2824-32. PMID: 12684469.
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    79. Sofroniew MV, Howe CL, Mobley WC. Nerve growth factor signaling, neuroprotection, and neural repair. Annu Rev Neurosci. 2001; 24:1217-81. PMID: 11520933.
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