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Vespa Paul

TitleProfessor
InstitutionUniversity of California Los Angeles
DepartmentNeurology
Address300 Stein Plaza Suite 420
Los Angeles CA 90095
Phone310-794-9805
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    Other Positions
    TitleProfessor

    TitleDirector


    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    The Epilepsy Bioinformatics Study for Antiepileptogenic Therapy (EpiBioS4Rx)
    NIH/NINDS U54NS100064Jan 15, 2017 - Nov 30, 2021
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator
    MRS Detects Metabolic Dysfunction after Brain Injury
    NIH/NINDS R01NS049471Jan 10, 2006 - Dec 31, 2010
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Post Traumatic Nonconvulsive Epileptiform Activity
    NIH/NINDS K08NS002089Sep 6, 2001 - Aug 31, 2007
    Role: Principal Investigator

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Vespa PM, Shrestha V, Abend N, Agoston D, Au A, Bell MJ, Bleck TP, Blanco MB, Claassen J, Diaz-Arrastia R, Duncan D, Ellingson B, Foreman B, Gilmore EJ, Hirsch L, Hunn M, Kamnaksh A, McArthur D, Morokoff A, O'Brien T, O'Phelan K, Robertson CL, Rosenthal E, Staba R, Toga A, Willyerd FA, Zimmermann L, Yam E, Martinez S, Real C, Engel J, Agoston D, Au A, Bell MJ, Bleck Thomas P, Branch C, Buitrago Blanco M, Bullock R, Burrows BT, Claassen J, Clarke R, Cloyd J, Coles L, Crawford K, Diaz-Arrastia R, Duncan D, Ellingson B, Engel J, Foreman B, Galanopoulou A, Gilmore E, Olli G, Harris N, Hartings J, Lawrence H, Hunn M, Jette N, Johnston L, Jones N, Kanner A, McArthur D, Monti M, Morokoff A, Moshe S, Mowrey W, O'Brien T, O'Phelan K, Pitkanen A, Raman R, Robertson C, Rosenthal E, Shultz S, Snutch T, Staba R, Toga A, Van Horn J, Vespa P, Willyerd F, Zimmermann L. The epilepsy bioinformatics study for anti-epileptogenic therapy (EpiBioS4Rx) clinical biomarker: Study design and protocol. Neurobiol Dis. 2018 Jul 23. PMID: 30048805.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Schnakers C, Lutkenhoff ES, Bio BJ, McArthur DL, Vespa PM, Monti MM. Acute EEG spectra characteristics predict thalamic atrophy after severe TBI. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2018 Jun 28. PMID: 29954872.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Wolahan SM, Lebby E, Mao HC, McArthur D, Real C, Vespa PM, Braas D, Glenn TC. Novel metabolomic comparison of arterial and jugular venous blood in severe adult TBI patients and the impact of pentobarbital infusion. J Neurotrauma. 2018 Jun 14. PMID: 29901425.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Dell'Italia J, Johnson MA, Vespa PM, Monti MM. Network Analysis in Disorders of Consciousness: Four Problems and One Proposed Solution (Exponential Random Graph Models). Front Neurol. 2018; 9:439. PMID: 29946293.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Cohen AS, Izzy S, Kumar MA, Joyce CJ, Figueroa SA, Maas MB, Hall CE, McDonagh DL, Lerner DP, Vespa PM, Shutter LA, Rosenthal ES. Education Research: Variation in priorities for neurocritical care education expressed across role groups. Neurology. 2018 Jun 12; 90(24):1117-1122. PMID: 29891575.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Duncan D, Vespa P, Pitkanen A, Braimah A, Lapinlampi N, Toga AW. Big data sharing and analysis to advance research in post-traumatic epilepsy. Neurobiol Dis. 2018 Jun 01. PMID: 29864492.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Tubi MA, Lutkenhoff E, Blanco MB, McArthur D, Villablanca P, Ellingson B, Diaz-Arrastia R, Van Ness P, Real C, Shrestha V, Engel J, Vespa PM, Agoston D, Au A, Bell MJ, Branch C, Buitrago Blanco M, Bullock R, Claassen J, Clarke R, Cloyd J, Coles L, Crawford K, Diaz-Arrastia R, Duncan D, Ellingson B, Engel J, Foreman B, Galanopoulou A, Gilmore E, Olli G, Harris N, Hartings J, Lawrence H, Hunn M, Jette N, Johnston L, Jones N, Kanner A, McArthur D, Monti M, Morokoff A, Moshe S, Mowrey W, Naughton T, O'Brien T, O'Phelan K, Pitkanen A, Raman R, Robertson C, Rosenthal E, Shultz S, Snutch T, Staba R, Toga A, Van Horn J, Vespa P, Willyerd F, Zimmermann L. Early seizures and temporal lobe trauma predict post-traumatic epilepsy: A longitudinal study. Neurobiol Dis. 2018 May 31. PMID: 29859872.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Ausman JI, Liebeskind DS, Gonzalez N, Saver J, Martin N, Villablanca JP, Vespa P, Duckwiler G, Jahan R, Niu T, Salamon N, Yoo B, Tateshima S, Buitrago Blanco MM, Starkman S. A review of the diagnosis and management of vertebral basilar (posterior) circulation disease. Surg Neurol Int. 2018; 9:106. PMID: 29930872.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Han X, Kwitt R, Aylward S, Bakas S, Menze B, Asturias A, Vespa P, Van Horn J, Niethammer M. Brain extraction from normal and pathological images: A joint PCA/Image-Reconstruction approach. Neuroimage. 2018 May 04; 176:431-445. PMID: 29730494.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Irimia A, Van Horn JD, Vespa PM. Cerebral microhemorrhages due to traumatic brain injury and their effects on the aging human brain. Neurobiol Aging. 2018 Jun; 66:158-164. PMID: 29579686.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Shi ZS, Duckwiler GR, Jahan R, Tateshima S, Szeder V, Saver JL, Kim D, Sharma LK, Vespa PM, Salamon N, Villablanca JP, Viñuela F, Feng L, Loh Y, Liebeskind DS. Early Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption after Mechanical Thrombectomy in Acute Ischemic Stroke. J Neuroimaging. 2018 May; 28(3):283-288. PMID: 29484769.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Vespa P. Traumatic brain injury is a longitudinal disease process. Curr Opin Neurol. 2017 Dec; 30(6):563-564. PMID: 29095717.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Irimia A, Goh SM, Wade AC, Patel K, Vespa PM, Van Horn JD. Traumatic Brain Injury Severity, Neuropathophysiology, and Clinical Outcome: Insights from Multimodal Neuroimaging. Front Neurol. 2017; 8:530. PMID: 29051745.
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    14. Chiu CY, Coffey LL, Murkey J, Symmes K, Sample HA, Wilson MR, Naccache SN, Arevalo S, Somasekar S, Federman S, Stryke D, Vespa P, Schiller G, Messenger S, Humphries R, Miller S, Klausner JD. Diagnosis of Fatal Human Case of St. Louis Encephalitis Virus Infection by Metagenomic Sequencing, California, 2016. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017 10; 23(10):1964-1968. PMID: 28930022.
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    15. Halford J, Shen S, Itamura K, Levine J, Chong AC, Czerwieniec G, Glenn TC, Hovda DA, Vespa P, Bullock R, Dietrich WD, Mondello S, Loo JA, Wanner IB. New astroglial injury-defined biomarkers for neurotrauma assessment. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2017 Oct; 37(10):3278-3299. PMID: 28816095.
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    16. Crone JS, Bio BJ, Vespa PM, Lutkenhoff ES, Monti MM. Restoration of thalamo-cortical connectivity after brain injury: recovery of consciousness, complex behavior, or passage of time? J Neurosci Res. 2018 Apr; 96(4):671-687. PMID: 28801920.
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    17. Vespa PM, Ferro J, Josephson SA. Inpatient quality metrics in neurology: A grand challenge. Neurology. 2017 Aug 15; 89(7):646-649. PMID: 28733337.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Josephson SA, Ferro J, Cohen A, Webb A, Lee E, Vespa PM. Quality improvement in neurology: Inpatient and emergency care quality measure set: Executive summary. Neurology. 2017 Aug 15; 89(7):730-735. PMID: 28733339.
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    19. Mannino C, Glenn TC, Hovda DA, Vespa PM, McArthur DL, Van Horn JD, Wright MJ. Acute glucose and lactate metabolism are associated with cognitive recovery following traumatic brain injury. J Neurosci Res. 2018 Apr; 96(4):696-701. PMID: 28609544.
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    20. Murkey JA, Chew KW, Carlson M, Shannon CL, Sirohi D, Sample HA, Wilson MR, Vespa P, Humphries RM, Miller S, Klausner JD, Chiu CY. Hepatitis E Virus-Associated Meningoencephalitis in a Lung Transplant Recipient Diagnosed by Clinical Metagenomic Sequencing. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2017; 4(3):ofx121. PMID: 28721353.
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    21. Wolahan SM, Mao HC, Real C, Vespa PM, Glenn TC. Lactate supplementation in severe traumatic brain injured adults by primed constant infusion of sodium L-lactate. J Neurosci Res. 2018 Apr; 96(4):688-695. PMID: 28543565.
      View in: PubMed
    22. Van Horn JD, Irimia A, Torgerson CM, Bhattrai A, Jacokes Z, Vespa PM. Mild cognitive impairment and structural brain abnormalities in a sexagenarian with a history of childhood traumatic brain injury. J Neurosci Res. 2018 Apr; 96(4):652-660. PMID: 28543689.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Wolahan SM, Prins ML, McArthur DL, Real CR, Hovda DA, Martin NA, Vespa PM, Glenn TC. Influence of Glycemic Control on Endogenous Circulating Ketone Concentrations in Adults Following Traumatic Brain Injury. Neurocrit Care. 2017 04; 26(2):239-246. PMID: 27761730.
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    24. Muschelli J, Sweeney EM, Ullman NL, Vespa P, Hanley DF, Crainiceanu CM. PItcHPERFeCT: Primary Intracranial Hemorrhage Probability Estimation using Random Forests on CT. Neuroimage Clin. 2017; 14:379-390. PMID: 28275541.
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    25. Lou X, Yu S, Scalzo F, Starkman S, Ali LK, Kim D, Rao NM, Hinman JD, Vespa PM, Jahan R, Tateshima S, Gonzalez NR, Duckwiler GR, Saver JL, Yoo B, Salamon N, Lyu J, Ma L, Wang DJ, Liebeskind DS. Multi-delay ASL can identify leptomeningeal collateral perfusion in endovascular therapy of ischemic stroke. Oncotarget. 2017 Jan 10; 8(2):2437-2443. PMID: 27974692.
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    26. Hanley DF, Lane K, McBee N, Ziai W, Tuhrim S, Lees KR, Dawson J, Gandhi D, Ullman N, Mould WA, Mayo SW, Mendelow AD, Gregson B, Butcher K, Vespa P, Wright DW, Kase CS, Carhuapoma JR, Keyl PM, Diener-West M, Muschelli J, Betz JF, Thompson CB, Sugar EA, Yenokyan G, Janis S, John S, Harnof S, Lopez GA, Aldrich EF, Harrigan MR, Ansari S, Jallo J, Caron JL, LeDoux D, Adeoye O, Zuccarello M, Adams HP, Rosenblum M, Thompson RE, Awad IA. Thrombolytic removal of intraventricular haemorrhage in treatment of severe stroke: results of the randomised, multicentre, multiregion, placebo-controlled CLEAR III trial. Lancet. 2017 02 11; 389(10069):603-611. PMID: 28081952.
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    27. Korbakis G, Vespa PM. Multimodal neurologic monitoring. Handb Clin Neurol. 2017; 140:91-105. PMID: 28187816.
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    28. Hanley DF, Thompson RE, Muschelli J, Rosenblum M, McBee N, Lane K, Bistran-Hall AJ, Mayo SW, Keyl P, Gandhi D, Morgan TC, Ullman N, Mould WA, Carhuapoma JR, Kase C, Ziai W, Thompson CB, Yenokyan G, Huang E, Broaddus WC, Graham RS, Aldrich EF, Dodd R, Wijman C, Caron JL, Huang J, Camarata P, Mendelow AD, Gregson B, Janis S, Vespa P, Martin N, Awad I, Zuccarello M. Safety and efficacy of minimally invasive surgery plus alteplase in intracerebral haemorrhage evacuation (MISTIE): a randomised, controlled, open-label, phase 2 trial. Lancet Neurol. 2016 Nov; 15(12):1228-1237. PMID: 27751554.
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    29. Vespa P, Hanley D, Betz J, Hoffer A, Engh J, Carter R, Nakaji P, Ogilvy C, Jallo J, Selman W, Bistran-Hall A, Lane K, McBee N, Saver J, Thompson RE, Martin N. ICES (Intraoperative Stereotactic Computed Tomography-Guided Endoscopic Surgery) for Brain Hemorrhage: A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial. Stroke. 2016 11; 47(11):2749-2755. PMID: 27758940.
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    30. Wang B, Prastawa M, Irimia A, Saha A, Liu W, Goh SY, Vespa PM, Van Horn JD, Gerig G. Modeling 4D Pathological Changes by Leveraging Normative Models. Comput Vis Image Underst. 2016 10; 151:3-13. PMID: 27818606.
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    31. Zimmermann LL, Diaz-Arrastia R, Vespa PM. Seizures and the Role of Anticonvulsants After Traumatic Brain Injury. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2016 Oct; 27(4):499-508. PMID: 27637399.
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    32. Vespa PM, Hirt D, Manley GT. Advances in Neurotrauma Research. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2016 Oct; 27(4):xv-xvi. PMID: 27637404.
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    33. Buitrago Blanco MM, Prashant GN, Vespa PM. Cerebral Metabolism and the Role of Glucose Control in Acute Traumatic Brain Injury. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2016 Oct; 27(4):453-63. PMID: 27637395.
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    34. Ali LK, Weng JK, Starkman S, Saver JL, Kim D, Ovbiagele B, Buck BH, Sanossian N, Vespa P, Bang OY, Jahan R, Duckwiler GR, Viñuela F, Liebeskind DS. Heads Up! A Novel Provocative Maneuver to Guide Acute Ischemic Stroke Management. Interv Neurol. 2017 Mar; 6(1-2):8-15. PMID: 28611828.
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    35. Monti MM, Schnakers C, Korb AS, Bystritsky A, Vespa PM. Non-Invasive Ultrasonic Thalamic Stimulation in Disorders of Consciousness after Severe Brain Injury: A First-in-Man Report. Brain Stimul. 2016 Nov - Dec; 9(6):940-941. PMID: 27567470.
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    36. Martin RM, Wright MJ, Lutkenhoff ES, Ellingson BM, Van Horn JD, Tubi M, Alger JR, McArthur DL, Vespa PM. Traumatic hemorrhagic brain injury: impact of location and resorption on cognitive outcome. J Neurosurg. 2017 Mar; 126(3):796-804. PMID: 27231979.
      View in: PubMed
    37. Vespa PM. Brain Hypoxia and Ischemia After Traumatic Brain Injury: Is Oxygen the Right Metabolic Target? JAMA Neurol. 2016 May 01; 73(5):504-5. PMID: 27019352.
      View in: PubMed
    38. Vespa P, Tubi M, Claassen J, Buitrago-Blanco M, McArthur D, Velazquez AG, Tu B, Prins M, Nuwer M. Metabolic crisis occurs with seizures and periodic discharges after brain trauma. Ann Neurol. 2016 Apr; 79(4):579-90. PMID: 26814699.
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    39. Bai Y, Sow D, Vespa P, Hu X. Real-Time Processing of Continuous Physiological Signals in a Neurocritical Care Unit on a Stream Data Analytics Platform. Acta Neurochir Suppl. 2016; 122:75-80. PMID: 27165881.
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    40. Connolly M, Vespa P, Hu X. Characterization of Cerebral Vascular Response to EEG Bursts Using ICP Pulse Waveform Template Matching. Acta Neurochir Suppl. 2016; 122:291-4. PMID: 27165924.
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    41. Hamilton R, Fuller J, Baldwin K, Vespa P, Hu X, Bergsneider M. Relative Position of the Third Characteristic Peak of the Intracranial Pressure Pulse Waveform Morphology Differentiates Normal-Pressure Hydrocephalus Shunt Responders and Nonresponders. Acta Neurochir Suppl. 2016; 122:339-45. PMID: 27165933.
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    42. Connolly M, Liou R, Vespa P, Hu X. Identification of an Intracranial Pressure (ICP) Response Function from Continuously Acquired Electroencephalographic and ICP Signals in Burst-Suppressed Patients. Acta Neurochir Suppl. 2016; 122:225-8. PMID: 27165911.
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    43. Wong KP, Bergsneider M, Glenn TC, Kepe V, Barrio JR, Hovda DA, Vespa PM, Huang SC. A semi-automated workflow solution for multimodal neuroimaging: application to patients with traumatic brain injury. Brain Inform. 2016; 3:1-15. PMID: 27034916.
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    44. Wong KP, Bergsneider M, Glenn TC, Kepe V, Barrio JR, Hovda DA, Vespa PM, Huang SC. A semi-automated workflow solution for multimodal neuroimaging: application to patients with traumatic brain injury. Brain Inform. 2016 Mar; 3(1):1-15. PMID: 27747595.
      View in: PubMed
    45. Shi ZS, Duckwiler GR, Jahan R, Tateshima S, Gonzalez NR, Szeder V, Saver JL, Kim D, Ali LK, Starkman S, Vespa PM, Salamon N, Villablanca JP, Viñuela F, Feng L, Loh Y, Liebeskind DS. New Cerebral Microbleeds After Mechanical Thrombectomy for Large-Vessel Occlusion Strokes. Medicine (Baltimore). 2015 Nov; 94(47):e2180. PMID: 26632753.
      View in: PubMed
    46. Muschelli J, Ullman NL, Sweeney EM, Eloyan A, Martin N, Vespa P, Hanley DF, Crainiceanu CM. Quantitative Intracerebral Hemorrhage Localization. Stroke. 2015 Nov; 46(11):3270-3. PMID: 26451031; PMCID: PMC4624463 [Available on 11/01/16].
    47. Nuwer MR, Vespa PM. Critical Care Coding for Neurologists. Continuum (Minneap Minn). 2015 Oct; 21(5 Neurocritical Care):1455-60. PMID: 26426242.
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    48. Hutchinson PJ, Jalloh I, Helmy A, Carpenter KL, Rostami E, Bellander BM, Boutelle MG, Chen JW, Claassen J, Dahyot-Fizelier C, Enblad P, Gallagher CN, Helbok R, Hillered L, Le Roux PD, Magnoni S, Mangat HS, Menon DK, Nordström CH, O'Phelan KH, Oddo M, Perez Barcena J, Robertson C, Ronne-Engström E, Sahuquillo J, Smith M, Stocchetti N, Belli A, Carpenter TA, Coles JP, Czosnyka M, Dizdar N, Goodman JC, Gupta AK, Nielsen TH, Marklund N, Montcriol A, O'Connell MT, Poca MA, Sarrafzadeh A, Shannon RJ, Skjøth-Rasmussen J, Smielewski P, Stover JF, Timofeev I, Vespa P, Zavala E, Ungerstedt U. Consensus statement from the 2014 International Microdialysis Forum. Intensive Care Med. 2015 Sep; 41(9):1517-28. PMID: 26194024; PMCID: PMC4550654.
    49. Chesnut RM, Bleck TP, Citerio G, Classen J, Cooper DJ, Coplin WM, Diringer MN, Grände PO, Hemphill JC, Hutchinson PJ, Le Roux P, Mayer SA, Menon DK, Myburgh JA, Okonkwo DO, Robertson CS, Sahuquillo J, Stocchetti N, Sung G, Temkin N, Vespa PM, Videtta W, Yonas H. A Consensus-Based Interpretation of the Benchmark Evidence from South American Trials: Treatment of Intracranial Pressure Trial. J Neurotrauma. 2015 Nov 15; 32(22):1722-4. PMID: 26061135.
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    50. Webb AJ, Ullman NL, Morgan TC, Muschelli J, Kornbluth J, Awad IA, Mayo S, Rosenblum M, Ziai W, Zuccarrello M, Aldrich F, John S, Harnof S, Lopez G, Broaddus WC, Wijman C, Vespa P, Bullock R, Haines SJ, Cruz-Flores S, Tuhrim S, Hill MD, Narayan R, Hanley DF. Accuracy of the ABC/2 Score for Intracerebral Hemorrhage: Systematic Review and Analysis of MISTIE, CLEAR-IVH, and CLEAR III. Stroke. 2015 Sep; 46(9):2470-6. PMID: 26243227; PMCID: PMC4550520.
    51. Weled BJ, Adzhigirey LA, Hodgman TM, Brilli RJ, Spevetz A, Kline AM, Montgomery VL, Puri N, Tisherman SA, Vespa PM, Pronovost PJ, Rainey TG, Patterson AJ, Wheeler DS. Critical Care Delivery: The Importance of Process of Care and ICU Structure to Improved Outcomes: An Update From the American College of Critical Care Medicine Task Force on Models of Critical Care. Crit Care Med. 2015 Jul; 43(7):1520-5. PMID: 25803647.
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    52. Shi ZS, Duckwiler GR, Jahan R, Tateshima S, Gonzalez NR, Szeder V, Saver JL, Kim D, Ali LK, Starkman S, Vespa PM, Salamon N, Villablanca JP, Viñuela F, Feng L, Loh Y, Liebeskind DS. Mechanical thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke with cerebral microbleeds. J Neurointerv Surg. 2016 Jun; 8(6):563-7. PMID: 25994939.
      View in: PubMed
    53. Stocchetti N, Taccone FS, Citerio G, Pepe PE, Le Roux PD, Oddo M, Polderman KH, Stevens RD, Barsan W, Maas AI, Meyfroidt G, Bell MJ, Silbergleit R, Vespa PM, Faden AI, Helbok R, Tisherman S, Zanier ER, Valenzuela T, Wendon J, Menon DK, Vincent JL. Neuroprotection in acute brain injury: an up-to-date review. Crit Care. 2015 Apr 21; 19:186. PMID: 25896893; PMCID: PMC4404577.
    54. Muschelli J, Ullman NL, Mould WA, Vespa P, Hanley DF, Crainiceanu CM. Validated automatic brain extraction of head CT images. Neuroimage. 2015 Jul 01; 114:379-85. PMID: 25862260; PMCID: PMC4446187.
    55. Chmayssani M, Stein NR, McArthur DL, Vespa PM. Therapeutic intravascular normothermia reduces the burden of metabolic crisis. Neurocrit Care. 2015 Apr; 22(2):265-72. PMID: 25348249.
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    56. Connolly M, Vespa P, Pouratian N, Gonzalez NR, Hu X. Characterization of the relationship between intracranial pressure and electroencephalographic monitoring in burst-suppressed patients. Neurocrit Care. 2015 Apr; 22(2):212-20. PMID: 25142827; PMCID: PMC4336620.
    57. Glenn TC, Martin NA, Horning MA, McArthur DL, Hovda DA, Vespa P, Brooks GA. Lactate: brain fuel in human traumatic brain injury: a comparison with normal healthy control subjects. J Neurotrauma. 2015 Jun 01; 32(11):820-32. PMID: 25594628; PMCID: PMC4530406.
    58. Glenn TC, Martin NA, McArthur DL, Hovda DA, Vespa P, Johnson ML, Horning MA, Brooks GA. Endogenous Nutritive Support after Traumatic Brain Injury: Peripheral Lactate Production for Glucose Supply via Gluconeogenesis. J Neurotrauma. 2015 Jun 01; 32(11):811-9. PMID: 25279664; PMCID: PMC4530391.
    59. Neville TH, Wiley JF, Holmboe ES, Tseng CH, Vespa P, Kleerup EC, Wenger NS. Differences between attendings' and fellows' perceptions of futile treatment in the intensive care unit at one academic health center: implications for training. Acad Med. 2015 Mar; 90(3):324-30. PMID: 25517700; PMCID: PMC4339400.
    60. Goh SY, Irimia A, Torgerson CM, Tubi MA, Real CR, Hanley DF, Martin NA, Vespa PM, Van Horn JD. Longitudinal quantification and visualization of intracerebral haemorrhage using multimodal magnetic resonance and diffusion tensor imaging. Brain Inj. 2015; 29(4):438-45. PMID: 25518865; PMCID: PMC4440338.
    61. Vespa PM. Oral anticoagulants and the risk of intracranial hemorrhage. JAMA. 2014 Dec 17; 312(23):2562-3. PMID: 25514305.
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    62. Le Roux P, Menon DK, Citerio G, Vespa P, Bader MK, Brophy G, Diringer MN, Stocchetti N, Videtta W, Armonda R, Badjatia N, Bösel J, Chesnut R, Chou S, Claassen J, Czosnyka M, De Georgia M, Figaji A, Fugate J, Helbok R, Horowitz D, Hutchinson P, Kumar M, McNett M, Miller C, Naidech A, Oddo M, Olson D, O'Phelan K, Provencio JJ, Puppo C, Riker R, Roberson C, Schmidt M, Taccone F. The International Multidisciplinary Consensus Conference on Multimodality Monitoring in Neurocritical Care: a list of recommendations and additional conclusions: a statement for healthcare professionals from the Neurocritical Care Society and the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine. Neurocrit Care. 2014 Dec; 21 Suppl 2:S282-96. PMID: 25501689.
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    63. Le Roux P, Menon DK, Citerio G, Vespa P, Bader MK, Brophy G, Diringer MN, Stocchetti N, Videtta W, Armonda R, Badjatia N, Bösel J, Chesnut R, Chou S, Claassen J, Czosnyka M, De Georgia M, Figaji A, Fugate J, Helbok R, Horowitz D, Hutchinson P, Kumar M, McNett M, Miller C, Naidech A, Oddo M, Olson D, O'Phelan K, Provencio JJ, Puppo C, Riker R, Roberson C, Schmidt M, Taccone F. The International Multidisciplinary Consensus Conference on Multimodality Monitoring in Neurocritical Care: evidentiary tables: a statement for healthcare professionals from the Neurocritical Care Society and the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine. Neurocrit Care. 2014 Dec; 21 Suppl 2:S297-361. PMID: 25608916.
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    64. Badjatia N, Vespa P. Monitoring nutrition and glucose in acute brain injury. Neurocrit Care. 2014 Dec; 21 Suppl 2:S159-67. PMID: 25208674.
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    65. Le Roux P, Menon DK, Citerio G, Vespa P, Bader MK, Brophy GM, Diringer MN, Stocchetti N, Videtta W, Armonda R, Badjatia N, Böesel J, Chesnut R, Chou S, Claassen J, Czosnyka M, De Georgia M, Figaji A, Fugate J, Helbok R, Horowitz D, Hutchinson P, Kumar M, McNett M, Miller C, Naidech A, Oddo M, Olson D, O'Phelan K, Provencio JJ, Puppo C, Riker R, Robertson C, Schmidt M, Taccone F. Consensus summary statement of the International Multidisciplinary Consensus Conference on Multimodality Monitoring in Neurocritical Care: a statement for healthcare professionals from the Neurocritical Care Society and the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine. Neurocrit Care. 2014 Dec; 21 Suppl 2:S1-26. PMID: 25208678.
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    66. Chesnut R, Videtta W, Vespa P, Le Roux P. Intracranial pressure monitoring: fundamental considerations and rationale for monitoring. Neurocrit Care. 2014 Dec; 21 Suppl 2:S64-84. PMID: 25208680.
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    67. Vespa P, Menon D, Le Roux P. The International Multi-disciplinary Consensus Conference on Multimodality Monitoring: future directions and emerging technologies. Neurocrit Care. 2014 Dec; 21 Suppl 2:S270-81. PMID: 25208681.
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    68. Claassen J, Vespa P. Electrophysiologic monitoring in acute brain injury. Neurocrit Care. 2014 Dec; 21 Suppl 2:S129-47. PMID: 25208668.
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    69. Helbok R, Olson DM, Le Roux PD, Vespa P. Intracranial pressure and cerebral perfusion pressure monitoring in non-TBI patients: special considerations. Neurocrit Care. 2014 Dec; 21 Suppl 2:S85-94. PMID: 25208677.
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    70. Gonzalez NR, Connolly M, Dusick JR, Bhakta H, Vespa P. Phase I clinical trial for the feasibility and safety of remote ischemic conditioning for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Neurosurgery. 2014 Nov; 75(5):590-8; discussion 598. PMID: 25072112; PMCID: PMC4205274.
    71. Vespa PM. Fever in critical neurologic illness. JAMA. 2014 Oct 08; 312(14):1456-7. PMID: 25291581.
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    146. Wenger NS, Vespa PM. Ethical issues in patient-physician communication about therapy for cancer: professional responsibilities of the oncologist. Oncologist. 2010; 15 Suppl 1:43-8. PMID: 20237217.
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    156. Miller CM, Vespa PM. Concurrent neurocysticercosis and pulmonary tuberculosis. Neurocrit Care. 2009; 10(3):344-6. PMID: 18810665.
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    159. Burgess RE, Warach S, Schaewe TJ, Copenhaver BR, Alger JR, Vespa P, Martin N, Saver JL, Kidwell CS. Development and validation of a simple conversion model for comparison of intracerebral hemorrhage volumes measured on CT and gradient recalled echo MRI. Stroke. 2008 Jul; 39(7):2017-20. PMID: 18483414; PMCID: PMC2756493.
    160. Miller CM, Vespa P, Saver JL, Kidwell CS, Carmichael ST, Alger J, Frazee J, Starkman S, Liebeskind D, Nenov V, Elashoff R, Martin N. Image-guided endoscopic evacuation of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage. Surg Neurol. 2008 May; 69(5):441-6; discussion 446. PMID: 18424298; PMCID: PMC4160887.
    161. Hu X, Xu P, Lee DJ, Vespa P, Baldwin K, Bergsneider M. An algorithm for extracting intracranial pressure latency relative to electrocardiogram R wave. Physiol Meas. 2008 Apr; 29(4):459-71. PMID: 18354246; PMCID: PMC2629794.
    162. Vespa P. Cerebral salt wasting after traumatic brain injury: an important critical care treatment issue. Surg Neurol. 2008 Mar; 69(3):230-2. PMID: 18325425.
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    163. Bergsneider M, Miller C, Vespa PM, Hu X. Surgical management of adult hydrocephalus. Neurosurgery. 2008 Feb; 62 Suppl 2:643-59; discussion 659-60. PMID: 18596440.
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    164. Vespa PM. A breath of fresh air: the potential use for hyperoxia in traumatic brain injury. Crit Care Med. 2008 Jan; 36(1):363-5. PMID: 18158462.
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    165. Xu P, Scalzo F, Bergsneider M, Vespa P, Chad M, Hu X. Wavelet entropy characterization of elevated intracranial pressure. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2008; 2008:2924-7. PMID: 19163318.
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    166. Cattivelli FS, Sayed AH, Hu X, Lee D, Vespa P. Mathematical models of cerebral hemodynamics for detection of vasospasm in major cerebral arteries. Acta Neurochir Suppl. 2008; 102:63-9. PMID: 19388290; PMCID: PMC2673531.
    167. Vespa PM, Miller C, McArthur D, Eliseo M, Etchepare M, Hirt D, Glenn TC, Martin N, Hovda D. Nonconvulsive electrographic seizures after traumatic brain injury result in a delayed, prolonged increase in intracranial pressure and metabolic crisis. Crit Care Med. 2007 Dec; 35(12):2830-6. PMID: 18074483; PMCID: PMC4347945.
    168. Broderick J, Connolly S, Feldmann E, Hanley D, Kase C, Krieger D, Mayberg M, Morgenstern L, Ogilvy CS, Vespa P, Zuccarello M. Guidelines for the management of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage in adults: 2007 update: a guideline from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association Stroke Council, High Blood Pressure Research Council, and the Quality of Care and Outcomes in Research Interdisciplinary Working Group. Circulation. 2007 Oct 16; 116(16):e391-413. PMID: 17938297.
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    169. Hu X, Miller C, Vespa P, Bergsneider M. Adaptive computation of approximate entropy and its application in integrative analysis of irregularity of heart rate variability and intracranial pressure signals. Med Eng Phys. 2008 Jun; 30(5):631-9. PMID: 17714974; PMCID: PMC2413186.
    170. Loh Y, Vespa PM, Viñuela F. Focal meningoencephalitis and mycotic aneurysms from suspected aneurysm coil seeding. Neurology. 2007 Aug 07; 69(6):613. PMID: 17679684.
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    171. Hu X, Nenov V, Vespa P, Bergsneider M. Characterization of interdependency between intracranial pressure and heart variability signals: a causal spectral measure and a generalized synchronization measure. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2007 Aug; 54(8):1407-17. PMID: 17694861; PMCID: PMC2140277.
    172. Broderick J, Connolly S, Feldmann E, Hanley D, Kase C, Krieger D, Mayberg M, Morgenstern L, Ogilvy CS, Vespa P, Zuccarello M. Guidelines for the management of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage in adults: 2007 update: a guideline from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association Stroke Council, High Blood Pressure Research Council, and the Quality of Care and Outcomes in Research Interdisciplinary Working Group. Stroke. 2007 Jun; 38(6):2001-23. PMID: 17478736.
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    173. Hebb MO, McArthur DL, Alger J, Etchepare M, Glenn TC, Bergsneider M, Martin N, Vespa PM. Impaired percent alpha variability on continuous electroencephalography is associated with thalamic injury and predicts poor long-term outcome after human traumatic brain injury. J Neurotrauma. 2007 Apr; 24(4):579-90. PMID: 17439342.
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    174. Hu X, Nenov V, Bergsneider M, Glenn TC, Vespa P, Martin N. Estimation of hidden state variables of the Intracranial system using constrained nonlinear Kalman filters. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2007 Apr; 54(4):597-610. PMID: 17405367.
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    175. Vespa PM, O'Phelan K, McArthur D, Miller C, Eliseo M, Hirt D, Glenn T, Hovda DA. Pericontusional brain tissue exhibits persistent elevation of lactate/pyruvate ratio independent of cerebral perfusion pressure. Crit Care Med. 2007 Apr; 35(4):1153-60. PMID: 17334254.
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    176. Vespa PM, Miller C, Hu X, Nenov V, Buxey F, Martin NA. Intensive care unit robotic telepresence facilitates rapid physician response to unstable patients and decreased cost in neurointensive care. Surg Neurol. 2007 Apr; 67(4):331-7. PMID: 17350395.
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    177. Shields DC, Leiphart JW, McArthur DL, Vespa PM, LeVan Quyen M, Martinerie J, Soss JR. Cortical synchrony changes detected by scalp electrode electroencephalograph as traumatic brain injury patients emerge from coma. Surg Neurol. 2007 Apr; 67(4):354-9. PMID: 17350400.
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    178. Dusick JR, Glenn TC, Lee WN, Vespa PM, Kelly DF, Lee SM, Hovda DA, Martin NA. Increased pentose phosphate pathway flux after clinical traumatic brain injury: a [1,2-13C2]glucose labeling study in humans. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2007 Sep; 27(9):1593-602. PMID: 17293841.
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    179. Miller CM, Vespa PM, McArthur DL, Hirt D, Etchepare M. Frameless stereotactic aspiration and thrombolysis of deep intracerebral hemorrhage is associated with reduced levels of extracellular cerebral glutamate and unchanged lactate pyruvate ratios. Neurocrit Care. 2007; 6(1):22-9. PMID: 17356187.
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    180. Kim D, Jahan R, Starkman S, Abolian A, Kidwell CS, Vinuela F, Duckwiler GR, Ovbiagele B, Vespa PM, Selco S, Rajajee V, Saver JL. Endovascular mechanical clot retrieval in a broad ischemic stroke cohort. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2006 Nov-Dec; 27(10):2048-52. PMID: 17110664.
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    181. Marder VJ, Chute DJ, Starkman S, Abolian AM, Kidwell C, Liebeskind D, Ovbiagele B, Vinuela F, Duckwiler G, Jahan R, Vespa PM, Selco S, Rajajee V, Kim D, Sanossian N, Saver JL. Analysis of thrombi retrieved from cerebral arteries of patients with acute ischemic stroke. Stroke. 2006 Aug; 37(8):2086-93. PMID: 16794209.
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    182. Vespa PM. Brain tissue oxygen monitoring: a measure of supply and demand. Crit Care Med. 2006 Jun; 34(6):1850-2. PMID: 16715002.
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    183. Vespa PM. The implications of cerebral ischemia and metabolic dysfunction for treatment strategies in neurointensive care. Curr Opin Crit Care. 2006 Apr; 12(2):119-23. PMID: 16543786.
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    184. Vespa P. The three tenors of subarachnoid hemorrhage: fever, anemia, and hyperglycemia. Crit Care Med. 2006 Mar; 34(3):897-8. PMID: 16505673.
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    185. Vespa P, Boonyaputthikul R, McArthur DL, Miller C, Etchepare M, Bergsneider M, Glenn T, Martin N, Hovda D. Intensive insulin therapy reduces microdialysis glucose values without altering glucose utilization or improving the lactate/pyruvate ratio after traumatic brain injury. Crit Care Med. 2006 Mar; 34(3):850-6. PMID: 16505665.
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    186. Schrader LM, Stern JM, Wilson CL, Fields TA, Salamon N, Nuwer MR, Vespa PM, Fried I. Low frequency electrical stimulation through subdural electrodes in a case of refractory status epilepticus. Clin Neurophysiol. 2006 Apr; 117(4):781-8. PMID: 16458067.
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    187. Vespa P. Continuous electroencephalography for subarachnoid hemorrhage has come of age. Neurocrit Care. 2006; 4(2):99-100. PMID: 16627895.
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    188. Hemphill JC, Bleck T, Carhuapoma JR, Chang C, Diringer M, Geocadin R, Mayer S, Samuels O, Vespa P. Is neurointensive care really optional for comprehensive stroke care? Stroke. 2005 Nov; 36(11):2344-5. PMID: 16224092.
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    189. Cohan P, Wang C, McArthur DL, Cook SW, Dusick JR, Armin B, Swerdloff R, Vespa P, Muizelaar JP, Cryer HG, Christenson PD, Kelly DF. Acute secondary adrenal insufficiency after traumatic brain injury: a prospective study. Crit Care Med. 2005 Oct; 33(10):2358-66. PMID: 16215393.
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    190. Nuwer MR, Hovda DA, Schrader LM, Vespa PM. Routine and quantitative EEG in mild traumatic brain injury. Clin Neurophysiol. 2005 Sep; 116(9):2001-25. PMID: 16029958.
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    191. Strong AJ, Boutelle MG, Vespa PM, Bullock MR, Bhatia R, Hashemi P. Treatment of critical care patients with substantial acute ischemic or traumatic brain injury. Crit Care Med. 2005 Sep; 33(9):2147-9; author reply 2149. PMID: 16148510.
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    192. Vespa P. Robotic telepresence in the intensive care unit. Crit Care. 2005 Aug; 9(4):319-20. PMID: 16137369; PMCID: PMC1269464.
    193. Vespa P, Bergsneider M, Hattori N, Wu HM, Huang SC, Martin NA, Glenn TC, McArthur DL, Hovda DA. Metabolic crisis without brain ischemia is common after traumatic brain injury: a combined microdialysis and positron emission tomography study. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2005 Jun; 25(6):763-74. PMID: 15716852; PMCID: PMC4347944.
    194. Miller CM, Vespa P. Intensive care of the acute stroke patient. Tech Vasc Interv Radiol. 2005 Jun; 8(2):92-102. PMID: 16194757.
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    195. Vespa P. Continuous EEG monitoring for the detection of seizures in traumatic brain injury, infarction, and intracerebral hemorrhage: "to detect and protect". J Clin Neurophysiol. 2005 Apr; 22(2):99-106. PMID: 15805809.
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    196. Vespa PM. Multimodality monitoring and telemonitoring in neurocritical care: from microdialysis to robotic telepresence. Curr Opin Crit Care. 2005 Apr; 11(2):133-8. PMID: 15758593.
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    197. Hillered L, Vespa PM, Hovda DA. Translational neurochemical research in acute human brain injury: the current status and potential future for cerebral microdialysis. J Neurotrauma. 2005 Jan; 22(1):3-41. PMID: 15665601.
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    198. Hu X, Nenov V, Vespa P, Bergsneider M. Estimation of hidden state variables of the intracranial system using constrained nonlinear Kalman filters. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2005; 6:5631-4. PMID: 17281533; PMCID: PMC2148030.
    199. Vespa P, McArthur D, Miller C, O'Phelan K, Frazee J, Kidwell C, Saver J, Starkman S, Martin N. Frameless stereotactic aspiration and thrombolysis of deep intracerebral hemorrhage is associated with reduction of hemorrhage volume and neurological improvement. Neurocrit Care. 2005; 2(3):274-81. PMID: 16159075.
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    200. Wu HM, Huang SC, Hattori N, Glenn TC, Vespa PM, Hovda DA, Bergsneider M. Subcortical white matter metabolic changes remote from focal hemorrhagic lesions suggest diffuse injury after human traumatic brain injury. Neurosurgery. 2004 Dec; 55(6):1306-15; discussio 1316-7. PMID: 15574212.
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    201. Vespa PM. Perfusing the brain after traumatic brain injury: what clinical index should we follow? Crit Care Med. 2004 Jul; 32(7):1621-3. PMID: 15241121.
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    202. Hattori N, Bergsneider M, Wu HM, Glenn TC, Vespa PM, Hovda DA, Phelps ME, Huang SC. Accuracy of a method using short inhalation of (15)O-O(2) for measuring cerebral oxygen extraction fraction with PET in healthy humans. J Nucl Med. 2004 May; 45(5):765-70. PMID: 15136624.
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    203. Hattori N, Huang SC, Wu HM, Liao W, Glenn TC, Vespa PM, Phelps ME, Hovda DA, Bergsneider M. Acute changes in regional cerebral (18)F-FDG kinetics in patients with traumatic brain injury. J Nucl Med. 2004 May; 45(5):775-83. PMID: 15136626.
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    204. Vespa P, McArthur DL, Alger J, O'Phelan K, Hattori N, Wu C, Glenn T, Bergsneider M, Martin NA, Hovda DA. Regional heterogeneity of post-traumatic brain metabolism as studied by microdialysis, magnetic resonance spectroscopy and positron emission tomography. Brain Pathol. 2004 Apr; 14(2):210-4. PMID: 15193034.
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    205. Vespa PM. The golden day after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Crit Care Med. 2004 Mar; 32(3):902-4. PMID: 15090993.
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    206. Wu HM, Huang SC, Hattori N, Glenn TC, Vespa PM, Yu CL, Hovda DA, Phelps ME, Bergsneider M. Selective metabolic reduction in gray matter acutely following human traumatic brain injury. J Neurotrauma. 2004 Feb; 21(2):149-61. PMID: 15000756.
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    207. Ostrem JL, Saver JL, Alger JR, Starkman S, Leary MC, Duckwiler G, Jahan R, Vespa P, Villablanca JP, Gobin YP, Vinuela F, Kidwell CS. Acute basilar artery occlusion: diffusion-perfusion MRI characterization of tissue salvage in patients receiving intra-arterial stroke therapies. Stroke. 2004 Feb; 35(2):e30-4. PMID: 14739412.
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    208. Vespa PM, Bleck TP. Neurogenic pulmonary edema and other mechanisms of impaired oxygenation after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Neurocrit Care. 2004; 1(2):157-70. PMID: 16174911.
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    209. Vespa P. What is the optimal threshold for cerebral perfusion pressure following traumatic brain injury? Neurosurg Focus. 2003 Dec 15; 15(6):E4. PMID: 15305840.
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    210. Hattori N, Huang SC, Wu HM, Yeh E, Glenn TC, Vespa PM, McArthur D, Phelps ME, Hovda DA, Bergsneider M. Correlation of regional metabolic rates of glucose with glasgow coma scale after traumatic brain injury. J Nucl Med. 2003 Nov; 44(11):1709-16. PMID: 14602850.
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    211. Leary MC, Kidwell CS, Villablanca JP, Starkman S, Jahan R, Duckwiler GR, Gobin YP, Sykes S, Gough KJ, Ferguson K, Llanes JN, Masamed R, Tremwel M, Ovbiagele B, Vespa PM, Vinuela F, Saver JL. Validation of computed tomographic middle cerebral artery "dot"sign: an angiographic correlation study. Stroke. 2003 Nov; 34(11):2636-40. PMID: 14593125.
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    212. Glenn TC, Kelly DF, Boscardin WJ, McArthur DL, Vespa P, Oertel M, Hovda DA, Bergsneider M, Hillered L, Martin NA. Energy dysfunction as a predictor of outcome after moderate or severe head injury: indices of oxygen, glucose, and lactate metabolism. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2003 Oct; 23(10):1239-50. PMID: 14526234.
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    213. Parodi S, Lechner A, Osih R, Vespa P, Pegues D. Nosocomial enterobacter meningitis: risk factors, management, and treatment outcomes. Clin Infect Dis. 2003 Jul 15; 37(2):159-66. PMID: 12856206.
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    214. Vespa PM, McArthur D, O'Phelan K, Glenn T, Etchepare M, Kelly D, Bergsneider M, Martin NA, Hovda DA. Persistently low extracellular glucose correlates with poor outcome 6 months after human traumatic brain injury despite a lack of increased lactate: a microdialysis study. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2003 Jul; 23(7):865-77. PMID: 12843790.
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    215. Vespa PM, O'Phelan K, Shah M, Mirabelli J, Starkman S, Kidwell C, Saver J, Nuwer MR, Frazee JG, McArthur DA, Martin NA. Acute seizures after intracerebral hemorrhage: a factor in progressive midline shift and outcome. Neurology. 2003 May 13; 60(9):1441-6. PMID: 12743228.
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    216. Shih LC, Saver JL, Alger JR, Starkman S, Leary MC, Vinuela F, Duckwiler G, Gobin YP, Jahan R, Villablanca JP, Vespa PM, Kidwell CS. Perfusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging thresholds identifying core, irreversibly infarcted tissue. Stroke. 2003 Jun; 34(6):1425-30. PMID: 12738899.
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    217. Zanier ER, Lee SM, Vespa PM, Giza CC, Hovda DA. Increased hippocampal CA3 vulnerability to low-level kainic acid following lateral fluid percussion injury. J Neurotrauma. 2003 May; 20(5):409-20. PMID: 12803974.
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    218. Hattori N, Huang SC, Wu HM, Liao W, Glenn TC, Vespa PM, Phelps ME, Hovda DA, Bergsneider M. PET investigation of post-traumatic cerebral blood volume and blood flow. Acta Neurochir Suppl. 2003; 86:49-52. PMID: 14753403.
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    219. Kidwell CS, Saver JL, Starkman S, Duckwiler G, Jahan R, Vespa P, Villablanca JP, Liebeskind DS, Gobin YP, Vinuela F, Alger JR. Late secondary ischemic injury in patients receiving intraarterial thrombolysis. Ann Neurol. 2002 Dec; 52(6):698-703. PMID: 12447922.
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    220. Oertel M, Kelly DF, Lee JH, McArthur DL, Glenn TC, Vespa P, Boscardin WJ, Hovda DA, Martin NA. Efficacy of hyperventilation, blood pressure elevation, and metabolic suppression therapy in controlling intracranial pressure after head injury. J Neurosurg. 2002 Nov; 97(5):1045-53. PMID: 12450025.
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    221. Vespa PM, Boscardin WJ, Hovda DA, McArthur DL, Nuwer MR, Martin NA, Nenov V, Glenn TC, Bergsneider M, Kelly DF, Becker DP. Early and persistent impaired percent alpha variability on continuous electroencephalography monitoring as predictive of poor outcome after traumatic brain injury. J Neurosurg. 2002 Jul; 97(1):84-92. PMID: 12134937.
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    222. Kidwell CS, Saver JL, Carneado J, Sayre J, Starkman S, Duckwiler G, Gobin YP, Jahan R, Vespa P, Villablanca JP, Liebeskind DS, Vinuela F. Predictors of hemorrhagic transformation in patients receiving intra-arterial thrombolysis. Stroke. 2002 Mar; 33(3):717-24. PMID: 11872894.
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    223. Oertel M, Kelly DF, Lee JH, Glenn TC, Vespa PM, Martin NA. Metabolic suppressive therapy as a treatment for intracranial hypertension--why it works and when it fails. Acta Neurochir Suppl. 2002; 81:69-70. PMID: 12168359.
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    224. Oertel M, Kelly DF, Lee JH, Glenn TC, Vespa PM, Martin NA. Is CPP therapy beneficial for all patients with high ICP? Acta Neurochir Suppl. 2002; 81:67-8. PMID: 12168358.
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    225. Oertel M, Kelly DF, Lee JH, Glenn TC, Vespa PM, Martin NA. Can hyperventilation improve cerebral microcirculation in patients with high ICP? Acta Neurochir Suppl. 2002; 81:71-2. PMID: 12168361.
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    226. Kidwell CS, Saver JL, Villablanca JP, Duckwiler G, Fredieu A, Gough K, Leary MC, Starkman S, Gobin YP, Jahan R, Vespa P, Liebeskind DS, Alger JR, Vinuela F. Magnetic resonance imaging detection of microbleeds before thrombolysis: an emerging application. Stroke. 2002 Jan; 33(1):95-8. PMID: 11779895.
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    227. Kidwell CS, Saver JL, Mattiello J, Warach S, Liebeskind DS, Starkman S, Vespa PM, Villablanca JP, Martin NA, Frazee J, Alger JR. Diffusion-perfusion MR evaluation of perihematomal injury in hyperacute intracerebral hemorrhage. Neurology. 2001 Nov 13; 57(9):1611-7. PMID: 11706101.
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    228. Bergsneider M, Hovda DA, Lee SM, Kelly DF, McArthur DL, Vespa PM, Lee JH, Huang SC, Martin NA, Phelps ME, Becker DP. Dissociation of cerebral glucose metabolism and level of consciousness during the period of metabolic depression following human traumatic brain injury. J Neurotrauma. 2000 May; 17(5):389-401. PMID: 10833058.
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    229. Vespa PM, Nuwer MR, Nenov V, Ronne-Engstrom E, Hovda DA, Bergsneider M, Kelly DF, Martin NA, Becker DP. Increased incidence and impact of nonconvulsive and convulsive seizures after traumatic brain injury as detected by continuous electroencephalographic monitoring. J Neurosurg. 1999 Nov; 91(5):750-60. PMID: 10541231; PMCID: PMC4347935.
    230. Vespa PM, Gobin YP. Endovascular treatment and neurointensive care of ruptured aneurysms. Crit Care Clin. 1999 Oct; 15(4):667-84. PMID: 10569115.
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    231. Vespa PM, Nenov V, Nuwer MR. Continuous EEG monitoring in the intensive care unit: early findings and clinical efficacy. J Clin Neurophysiol. 1999 Jan; 16(1):1-13. PMID: 10082088.
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    232. Vespa PM, Nuwer MR, Juhász C, Alexander M, Nenov V, Martin N, Becker DP. Early detection of vasospasm after acute subarachnoid hemorrhage using continuous EEG ICU monitoring. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol. 1997 Dec; 103(6):607-15. PMID: 9546487.
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    233. Vespa PM. Acute presentation and early intensive care of acute aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 1997 Apr-May; 6(4):230-4. PMID: 17895003.
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    234. Bergsneider M, Hovda DA, Shalmon E, Kelly DF, Vespa PM, Martin NA, Phelps ME, McArthur DL, Caron MJ, Kraus JF, Becker DP. Cerebral hyperglycolysis following severe traumatic brain injury in humans: a positron emission tomography study. J Neurosurg. 1997 Feb; 86(2):241-51. PMID: 9010426.
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