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Prins Robert

Title(s)Associate Professor, Neurosurgery
Phone310-794-5663
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    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    Identification and cloning of neoantigen-specific T cells for GBM immunotherapy
    NIH/NCI R01CA222695Apr 1, 2019 - Mar 31, 2024
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Immunotherapeutic targeting of the Glioblastoma Mutanome
    NIH/NCI R21CA186004Jan 16, 2015 - Dec 31, 2016
    Role: Principal Investigator
    CNS Anti-tumor immunity induced by dendritic cell vaccination and TLR agonists
    NIH/NCI R01CA123396Apr 1, 2007 - Jul 31, 2012
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Immune targeting of melanoma-associated antigens in glioma
    NIH/NCI K01CA111402Jul 1, 2006 - Jun 30, 2012
    Role: Principal Investigator

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Liu F, Cox CD, Chowdhury R, Dovek L, Nguyen H, Li T, Li S, Ozer B, Chou A, Nguyen N, Wei B, Antonios J, Soto H, Kornblum H, Liau L, Prins R, Nghiemphu PL, Yong W, Cloughesy T, Lai A. SPINT2 is hypermethylated in both IDH1 mutated and wild-type glioblastomas, and exerts tumor suppression via reduction of c-Met activation. J Neurooncol. 2019 Mar 05. PMID: 30838489.
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    2. Chakhoyan A, Yao J, Leu K, Pope WB, Salamon N, Yong W, Lai A, Nghiemphu PL, Everson RG, Prins RM, Liau LM, Nathanson DA, Cloughesy TF, Ellingson BM. Validation of vessel size imaging (VSI) in high-grade human gliomas using magnetic resonance imaging, image-guided biopsies, and quantitative immunohistochemistry. Sci Rep. 2019 Feb 26; 9(1):2846. PMID: 30808879.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Cloughesy TF, Mochizuki AY, Orpilla JR, Hugo W, Lee AH, Davidson TB, Wang AC, Ellingson BM, Rytlewski JA, Sanders CM, Kawaguchi ES, Du L, Li G, Yong WH, Gaffey SC, Cohen AL, Mellinghoff IK, Lee EQ, Reardon DA, O'Brien BJ, Butowski NA, Nghiemphu PL, Clarke JL, Arrillaga-Romany IC, Colman H, Kaley TJ, de Groot JF, Liau LM, Wen PY, Prins RM. Neoadjuvant anti-PD-1 immunotherapy promotes a survival benefit with intratumoral and systemic immune responses in recurrent glioblastoma. Nat Med. 2019 Feb 11. PMID: 30742122.
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    4. Owens GC, Garcia AJ, Mochizuki AY, Chang JW, Reyes SD, Salamon N, Prins RM, Mathern GW, Fallah A. Evidence for Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses in a Cohort of Intractable Pediatric Epilepsy Surgery Patients. Front Immunol. 2019; 10:121. PMID: 30761153.
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    5. Davidson TB, Lee A, Hsu M, Sedighim S, Orpilla J, Treger J, Mastall M, Roesch S, Rapp C, Galvez M, Mochizuki A, Antonios J, Garcia A, Kotecha N, Bayless N, Nathanson D, Wang A, Everson R, Yong WH, Cloughesy TF, Liau LM, Herold-Mende C, Prins RM. Expression of PD-1 by T Cells in Malignant Glioma Patients Reflects Exhaustion and Activation. Clin Cancer Res. 2018 Nov 29. PMID: 30498094.
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    6. Subbiah V, Murthy R, Hong DS, Prins RM, Hosing C, Hendricks K, Kolli D, Noffsinger L, Brown R, McGuire M, Fu S, Piha-Paul S, Naing A, Conley AP, Benjamin RS, Kaur I, Bosch ML. Cytokines Produced by Dendritic Cells Administered Intratumorally Correlate with Clinical Outcome in Patients with Diverse Cancers. Clin Cancer Res. 2018 Aug 15; 24(16):3845-3856. PMID: 30018119.
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    7. Liau LM, Ashkan K, Tran DD, Campian JL, Trusheim JE, Cobbs CS, Heth JA, Salacz M, Taylor S, D'Andre SD, Iwamoto FM, Dropcho EJ, Moshel YA, Walter KA, Pillainayagam CP, Aiken R, Chaudhary R, Goldlust SA, Bota DA, Duic P, Grewal J, Elinzano H, Toms SA, Lillehei KO, Mikkelsen T, Walbert T, Abram SR, Brenner AJ, Brem S, Ewend MG, Khagi S, Portnow J, Kim LJ, Loudon WG, Thompson RC, Avigan DE, Fink KL, Geoffroy FJ, Lindhorst S, Lutzky J, Sloan AE, Schackert G, Krex D, Meisel HJ, Wu J, Davis RP, Duma C, Etame AB, Mathieu D, Kesari S, Piccioni D, Westphal M, Baskin DS, New PZ, Lacroix M, May SA, Pluard TJ, Tse V, Green RM, Villano JL, Pearlman M, Petrecca K, Schulder M, Taylor LP, Maida AE, Prins RM, Cloughesy TF, Mulholland P, Bosch ML. Correction to: First results on survival from a large Phase 3 clinical trial of an autologous dendritic cell vaccine in newly diagnosed glioblastoma. J Transl Med. 2018 Jun 29; 16(1):179. PMID: 29958537.
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    8. Liau LM, Ashkan K, Tran DD, Campian JL, Trusheim JE, Cobbs CS, Heth JA, Salacz M, Taylor S, D'Andre SD, Iwamoto FM, Dropcho EJ, Moshel YA, Walter KA, Pillainayagam CP, Aiken R, Chaudhary R, Goldlust SA, Bota DA, Duic P, Grewal J, Elinzano H, Toms SA, Lillehei KO, Mikkelsen T, Walbert T, Abram SR, Brenner AJ, Brem S, Ewend MG, Khagi S, Portnow J, Kim LJ, Loudon WG, Thompson RC, Avigan DE, Fink KL, Geoffroy FJ, Lindhorst S, Lutzky J, Sloan AE, Schackert G, Krex D, Meisel HJ, Wu J, Davis RP, Duma C, Etame AB, Mathieu D, Kesari S, Piccioni D, Westphal M, Baskin DS, New PZ, Lacroix M, May SA, Pluard TJ, Tse V, Green RM, Villano JL, Pearlman M, Petrecca K, Schulder M, Taylor LP, Maida AE, Prins RM, Cloughesy TF, Mulholland P, Bosch ML. First results on survival from a large Phase 3 clinical trial of an autologous dendritic cell vaccine in newly diagnosed glioblastoma. J Transl Med. 2018 May 29; 16(1):142. PMID: 29843811.
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    9. Garrett M, Sperry J, Braas D, Yan W, Le TM, Mottahedeh J, Ludwig K, Eskin A, Qin Y, Levy R, Breunig JJ, Pajonk F, Graeber TG, Radu CG, Christofk H, Prins RM, Lai A, Liau LM, Coppola G, Kornblum HI. Metabolic characterization of isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutant and IDH wildtype gliomaspheres uncovers cell type-specific vulnerabilities. Cancer Metab. 2018; 6:4. PMID: 29692895.
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    10. Mochizuki AY, Frost IM, Mastrodimos MB, Plant AS, Wang AC, Moore TB, Prins RM, Weiss PS, Jonas SJ. Precision Medicine in Pediatric Neurooncology: A Review. ACS Chem Neurosci. 2018 01 17; 9(1):11-28. PMID: 29199818.
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    11. Chung LK, Pelargos PE, Chan AM, Demos JV, Lagman C, Sheppard JP, Nguyen T, Chang YL, Hojat SA, Prins RM, Liau LM, Nghiemphu L, Lai A, Cloughesy TF, Yong WH, Gordon LK, Wadehra M, Yang I. Tissue microarray analysis for epithelial membrane protein-2 as a novel biomarker for gliomas. Brain Tumor Pathol. 2018 Jan; 35(1):1-9. PMID: 28887715.
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    12. Antonios JP, Soto H, Everson RG, Moughon DL, Wang AC, Orpilla J, Radu C, Ellingson BM, Lee JT, Cloughesy T, Phelps ME, Czernin J, Liau LM, Prins RM. Detection of immune responses after immunotherapy in glioblastoma using PET and MRI. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017 09 19; 114(38):10220-10225. PMID: 28874539.
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    13. Qin Y, Takahashi M, Sheets K, Soto H, Tsui J, Pelargos P, Antonios JP, Kasahara N, Yang I, Prins RM, Braun J, Gordon LK, Wadehra M. Epithelial membrane protein-2 (EMP2) promotes angiogenesis in glioblastoma multiforme. J Neurooncol. 2017 Aug; 134(1):29-40. PMID: 28597184.
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    14. Antonios JP, Soto H, Everson RG, Moughon D, Orpilla JR, Shin NP, Sedighim S, Treger J, Odesa S, Tucker A, Yong WH, Li G, Cloughesy TF, Liau LM, Prins RM. Immunosuppressive tumor-infiltrating myeloid cells mediate adaptive immune resistance via a PD-1/PD-L1 mechanism in glioblastoma. Neuro Oncol. 2017 06 01; 19(6):796-807. PMID: 28115578.
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    15. Antonios JP, Soto H, Everson RG, Orpilla J, Moughon D, Shin N, Sedighim S, Yong WH, Li G, Cloughesy TF, Liau LM, Prins RM. PD-1 blockade enhances the vaccination-induced immune response in glioma. JCI Insight. 2016 Jul 07; 1(10). PMID: 27453950.
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    16. Hsu M, Sedighim S, Wang T, Antonios JP, Everson RG, Tucker AM, Du L, Emerson R, Yusko E, Sanders C, Robins HS, Yong WH, Davidson TB, Li G, Liau LM, Prins RM. TCR Sequencing Can Identify and Track Glioma-Infiltrating T Cells after DC Vaccination. Cancer Immunol Res. 2016 05; 4(5):412-418. PMID: 26968205; PMCID: PMC4873445 [Available on 05/01/17].
    17. Everson RG, Antonios JP, Lisiero DN, Soto H, Scharnweber R, Garrett MC, Yong WH, Li N, Li G, Kruse CA, Liau LM, Prins RM. Efficacy of systemic adoptive transfer immunotherapy targeting NY-ESO-1 for glioblastoma. Neuro Oncol. 2016 Mar; 18(3):368-78. PMID: 26330563; PMCID: PMC4767237 [Available on 03/01/17].
    18. Fu X, Chin RM, Vergnes L, Hwang H, Deng G, Xing Y, Pai MY, Li S, Ta L, Fazlollahi F, Chen C, Prins RM, Teitell MA, Nathanson DA, Lai A, Faull KF, Jiang M, Clarke SG, Cloughesy TF, Graeber TG, Braas D, Christofk HR, Jung ME, Reue K, Huang J. 2-Hydroxyglutarate Inhibits ATP Synthase and mTOR Signaling. Cell Metab. 2015 Sep 01; 22(3):508-15. PMID: 26190651; PMCID: PMC4663076.
    19. Harris RJ, Cloughesy TF, Liau LM, Prins RM, Antonios JP, Li D, Yong WH, Pope WB, Lai A, Nghiemphu PL, Ellingson BM. pH-weighted molecular imaging of gliomas using amine chemical exchange saturation transfer MRI. Neuro Oncol. 2015 Nov; 17(11):1514-24. PMID: 26113557; PMCID: PMC4648305 [Available on 11/01/16].
    20. Erickson KL, Hickey MJ, Kato Y, Malone CC, Owens GC, Prins RM, Liau LM, Kasahara N, Kruse CA. Radial mobility and cytotoxic function of retroviral replicating vector transduced, non-adherent alloresponsive T lymphocytes. J Vis Exp. 2015 Feb 11; (96). PMID: 25741775.
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    21. Moertel CL, Xia J, LaRue R, Waldron NN, Andersen BM, Prins RM, Okada H, Donson AM, Foreman NK, Hunt MA, Pennell CA, Olin MR. CD200 in CNS tumor-induced immunosuppression: the role for CD200 pathway blockade in targeted immunotherapy. J Immunother Cancer. 2014; 2(1):46. PMID: 25598973; PMCID: PMC4296547.
    22. Li S, Chowdhury R, Liu F, Chou AP, Li T, Mody RR, Lou JJ, Chen W, Reiss J, Soto H, Prins R, Liau LM, Mischel PS, Nghiemphu PL, Yong WH, Cloughesy TF, Lai A. Tumor-suppressive miR148a is silenced by CpG island hypermethylation in IDH1-mutant gliomas. Clin Cancer Res. 2014 Nov 15; 20(22):5808-22. PMID: 25224277; PMCID: PMC4233178.
    23. Shih J, Rahman M, Luong QT, Lomeli SH, Riss J, Prins RM, Gure AO, Zeng G. Dominant B-cell epitopes from cancer/stem cell antigen SOX2 recognized by serum samples from cancer patients. Am J Clin Exp Immunol. 2014; 3(2):84-90. PMID: 25143868; PMCID: PMC4138131.
    24. Everson RG, Jin RM, Wang X, Safaee M, Scharnweber R, Lisiero DN, Soto H, Liau LM, Prins RM. Cytokine responsiveness of CD8(+) T cells is a reproducible biomarker for the clinical efficacy of dendritic cell vaccination in glioblastoma patients. J Immunother Cancer. 2014; 2:10. PMID: 24883189; PMCID: PMC4039989.
    25. Lisiero DN, Soto H, Everson RG, Liau LM, Prins RM. The histone deacetylase inhibitor, LBH589, promotes the systemic cytokine and effector responses of adoptively transferred CD8+ T cells. J Immunother Cancer. 2014; 2:8. PMID: 25054063; PMCID: PMC4105687.
    26. Lasky JL, Panosyan EH, Plant A, Davidson T, Yong WH, Prins RM, Liau LM, Moore TB. Autologous tumor lysate-pulsed dendritic cell immunotherapy for pediatric patients with newly diagnosed or recurrent high-grade gliomas. Anticancer Res. 2013 May; 33(5):2047-56. PMID: 23645755; PMCID: PMC4018463.
    27. Williams KJ, Argus JP, Zhu Y, Wilks MQ, Marbois BN, York AG, Kidani Y, Pourzia AL, Akhavan D, Lisiero DN, Komisopoulou E, Henkin AH, Soto H, Chamberlain BT, Vergnes L, Jung ME, Torres JZ, Liau LM, Christofk HR, Prins RM, Mischel PS, Reue K, Graeber TG, Bensinger SJ. An essential requirement for the SCAP/SREBP signaling axis to protect cancer cells from lipotoxicity. Cancer Res. 2013 May 01; 73(9):2850-62. PMID: 23440422; PMCID: PMC3919498.
    28. Prins RM, Wang X, Soto H, Young E, Lisiero DN, Fong B, Everson R, Yong WH, Lai A, Li G, Cloughesy TF, Liau LM. Comparison of glioma-associated antigen peptide-loaded versus autologous tumor lysate-loaded dendritic cell vaccination in malignant glioma patients. J Immunother. 2013 Feb; 36(2):152-7. PMID: 23377664; PMCID: PMC3568250.
    29. Lazovic J, Soto H, Piccioni D, Lou JR, Li S, Mirsadraei L, Yong W, Prins R, Liau LM, Ellingson BM, Cloughesy TF, Lai A, Pope WB. Detection of 2-hydroxyglutaric acid in vivo by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in U87 glioma cells overexpressing isocitrate dehydrogenase-1 mutation. Neuro Oncol. 2012 Dec; 14(12):1465-72. PMID: 23090985; PMCID: PMC3499014.
    30. Chou AP, Chowdhury R, Li S, Chen W, Kim AJ, Piccioni DE, Selfridge JM, Mody RR, Chang S, Lalezari S, Lin J, Sanchez DE, Wilson RW, Garrett MC, Harry B, Mottahedeh J, Nghiemphu PL, Kornblum HI, Mischel PS, Prins RM, Yong WH, Cloughesy T, Nelson SF, Liau LM, Lai A. Identification of retinol binding protein 1 promoter hypermethylation in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 mutant gliomas. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2012 Oct 03; 104(19):1458-69. PMID: 22945948; PMCID: PMC3529615.
    31. Yang J, Nagasawa DT, Spasic M, Amolis M, Choy W, Garcia HM, Prins RM, Liau LM, Yang I. Endogenous vaults and bioengineered vault nanoparticles for treatment of glioblastomas: implications for future targeted therapies. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2012 Jul; 23(3):451-8. PMID: 22748657.
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    32. Fong B, Jin R, Wang X, Safaee M, Lisiero DN, Yang I, Li G, Liau LM, Prins RM. Monitoring of regulatory T cell frequencies and expression of CTLA-4 on T cells, before and after DC vaccination, can predict survival in GBM patients. PLoS One. 2012; 7(4):e32614. PMID: 22485134; PMCID: PMC3317661.
    33. Hickey MJ, Malone CC, Erickson KE, Gomez GG, Young EL, Liau LM, Prins RM, Kruse CA. Implementing preclinical study findings to protocol design: translational studies with alloreactive CTL for gliomas. Am J Transl Res. 2012; 4(1):114-26. PMID: 22347526; PMCID: PMC3276381.
    34. Konkankit VV, Kim W, Koya RC, Eskin A, Dam MA, Nelson S, Ribas A, Liau LM, Prins RM. Decitabine immunosensitizes human gliomas to NY-ESO-1 specific T lymphocyte targeting through the Fas/Fas ligand pathway. J Transl Med. 2011 Nov 07; 9:192. PMID: 22060015; PMCID: PMC3229551.
    35. Pope WB, Prins RM, Albert Thomas M, Nagarajan R, Yen KE, Bittinger MA, Salamon N, Chou AP, Yong WH, Soto H, Wilson N, Driggers E, Jang HG, Su SM, Schenkein DP, Lai A, Cloughesy TF, Kornblum HI, Wu H, Fantin VR, Liau LM. Non-invasive detection of 2-hydroxyglutarate and other metabolites in IDH1 mutant glioma patients using magnetic resonance spectroscopy. J Neurooncol. 2012 Mar; 107(1):197-205. PMID: 22015945; PMCID: PMC3650613.
    36. Guo D, Reinitz F, Youssef M, Hong C, Nathanson D, Akhavan D, Kuga D, Amzajerdi AN, Soto H, Zhu S, Babic I, Tanaka K, Dang J, Iwanami A, Gini B, Dejesus J, Lisiero DD, Huang TT, Prins RM, Wen PY, Robins HI, Prados MD, Deangelis LM, Mellinghoff IK, Mehta MP, James CD, Chakravarti A, Cloughesy TF, Tontonoz P, Mischel PS. An LXR agonist promotes glioblastoma cell death through inhibition of an EGFR/AKT/SREBP-1/LDLR-dependent pathway. Cancer Discov. 2011 Oct; 1(5):442-56. PMID: 22059152.
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    37. Lisiero DN, Soto H, Liau LM, Prins RM. Enhanced sensitivity to IL-2 signaling regulates the clinical responsiveness of IL-12-primed CD8(+) T cells in a melanoma model. J Immunol. 2011 May 01; 186(9):5068-77. PMID: 21430221; PMCID: PMC3532507.
    38. Prins RM, Soto H, Konkankit V, Odesa SK, Eskin A, Yong WH, Nelson SF, Liau LM. Gene expression profile correlates with T-cell infiltration and relative survival in glioblastoma patients vaccinated with dendritic cell immunotherapy. Clin Cancer Res. 2011 Mar 15; 17(6):1603-15. PMID: 21135147; PMCID: PMC3071163.
    39. Hickey MJ, Malone CC, Erickson KL, Jadus MR, Prins RM, Liau LM, Kruse CA. Cellular and vaccine therapeutic approaches for gliomas. J Transl Med. 2010 Oct 14; 8:100. PMID: 20946667; PMCID: PMC2964608.
    40. Dang L, White DW, Gross S, Bennett BD, Bittinger MA, Driggers EM, Fantin VR, Jang HG, Jin S, Keenan MC, Marks KM, Prins RM, Ward PS, Yen KE, Liau LM, Rabinowitz JD, Cantley LC, Thompson CB, Vander Heiden MG, Su SM. Cancer-associated IDH1 mutations produce 2-hydroxyglutarate. Nature. 2010 Jun 17; 465(7300):966. PMID: 20559394; PMCID: PMC3766976.
    41. Guo D, Prins RM, Dang J, Kuga D, Iwanami A, Soto H, Lin KY, Huang TT, Akhavan D, Hock MB, Zhu S, Kofman AA, Bensinger SJ, Yong WH, Vinters HV, Horvath S, Watson AD, Kuhn JG, Robins HI, Mehta MP, Wen PY, DeAngelis LM, Prados MD, Mellinghoff IK, Cloughesy TF, Mischel PS. EGFR signaling through an Akt-SREBP-1-dependent, rapamycin-resistant pathway sensitizes glioblastomas to antilipogenic therapy. Sci Signal. 2009 Dec 15; 2(101):ra82. PMID: 20009104; PMCID: PMC2978002.
    42. Dang L, White DW, Gross S, Bennett BD, Bittinger MA, Driggers EM, Fantin VR, Jang HG, Jin S, Keenan MC, Marks KM, Prins RM, Ward PS, Yen KE, Liau LM, Rabinowitz JD, Cantley LC, Thompson CB, Vander Heiden MG, Su SM. Cancer-associated IDH1 mutations produce 2-hydroxyglutarate. Nature. 2009 Dec 10; 462(7274):739-44. PMID: 19935646.
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    43. Vo DD, Prins RM, Begley JL, Donahue TR, Morris LF, Bruhn KW, de la Rocha P, Yang MY, Mok S, Garban HJ, Craft N, Economou JS, Marincola FM, Wang E, Ribas A. Enhanced antitumor activity induced by adoptive T-cell transfer and adjunctive use of the histone deacetylase inhibitor LAQ824. Cancer Res. 2009 Nov 15; 69(22):8693-9. PMID: 19861533; PMCID: PMC2779578.
    44. Guo D, Hildebrandt IJ, Prins RM, Soto H, Mazzotta MM, Dang J, Czernin J, Shyy JY, Watson AD, Phelps M, Radu CG, Cloughesy TF, Mischel PS. The AMPK agonist AICAR inhibits the growth of EGFRvIII-expressing glioblastomas by inhibiting lipogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Aug 04; 106(31):12932-7. PMID: 19625624.
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    45. Shu CJ, Radu CG, Shelly SM, Vo DD, Prins R, Ribas A, Phelps ME, Witte ON. Quantitative PET reporter gene imaging of CD8+ T cells specific for a melanoma-expressed self-antigen. Int Immunol. 2009 Feb; 21(2):155-65. PMID: 19106231; PMCID: PMC2638874.
    46. Begley J, Vo DD, Morris LF, Bruhn KW, Prins RM, Mok S, Koya RC, Garban HJ, Comin-Anduix B, Craft N, Ribas A. Immunosensitization with a Bcl-2 small molecule inhibitor. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2009 May; 58(5):699-708. PMID: 18807035.
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    47. Prins RM, Cloughesy TF, Liau LM. Cytomegalovirus immunity after vaccination with autologous glioblastoma lysate. N Engl J Med. 2008 Jul 31; 359(5):539-41. PMID: 18669440; PMCID: PMC2775501.
    48. Prins RM, Shu CJ, Radu CG, Vo DD, Khan-Farooqi H, Soto H, Yang MY, Lin MS, Shelly S, Witte ON, Ribas A, Liau LM. Anti-tumor activity and trafficking of self, tumor-specific T cells against tumors located in the brain. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2008 Sep; 57(9):1279-89. PMID: 18253732; PMCID: PMC2614264.
    49. Kimura T, Koya RC, Anselmi L, Sternini C, Wang HJ, Comin-Anduix B, Prins RM, Faure-Kumar E, Rozengurt N, Cui Y, Kasahara N, Stripecke R. Lentiviral vectors with CMV or MHCII promoters administered in vivo: immune reactivity versus persistence of expression. Mol Ther. 2007 Jul; 15(7):1390-9. PMID: 17505480.
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    50. Prins RM, Vo DD, Khan-Farooqi H, Yang MY, Soto H, Economou JS, Liau LM, Ribas A. NK and CD4 cells collaborate to protect against melanoma tumor formation in the brain. J Immunol. 2006 Dec 15; 177(12):8448-55. PMID: 17142742.
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    51. Yang MY, Zetler PM, Prins RM, Khan-Farooqi H, Liau LM. Immunotherapy for patients with malignant glioma: from theoretical principles to clinical applications. Expert Rev Neurother. 2006 Oct; 6(10):1481-94. PMID: 17078788.
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    52. Prins RM, Craft N, Bruhn KW, Khan-Farooqi H, Koya RC, Stripecke R, Miller JF, Liau LM. The TLR-7 agonist, imiquimod, enhances dendritic cell survival and promotes tumor antigen-specific T cell priming: relation to central nervous system antitumor immunity. J Immunol. 2006 Jan 01; 176(1):157-64. PMID: 16365406.
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    53. Prins RM, Bruhn KW, Craft N, Lin JW, Kim CH, Odesa SK, Miller JF, Liau LM. Central nervous system tumor immunity generated by a recombinant listeria monocytogenes vaccine targeting tyrosinase related protein-2 and real-time imaging of intracranial tumor burden. Neurosurgery. 2006 Jan; 58(1):169-78; discussion 169-78. PMID: 16385341.
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    54. Khan-Farooqi HR, Prins RM, Liau LM. Tumor immunology, immunomics and targeted immunotherapy for central nervous system malignancies. Neurol Res. 2005 Oct; 27(7):692-702. PMID: 16197806.
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    55. Craft N, Bruhn KW, Nguyen BD, Prins R, Lin JW, Liau LM, Miller JF. The TLR7 agonist imiquimod enhances the anti-melanoma effects of a recombinant Listeria monocytogenes vaccine. J Immunol. 2005 Aug 01; 175(3):1983-90. PMID: 16034143.
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    56. Liau LM, Prins RM, Kiertscher SM, Odesa SK, Kremen TJ, Giovannone AJ, Lin JW, Chute DJ, Mischel PS, Cloughesy TF, Roth MD. Dendritic cell vaccination in glioblastoma patients induces systemic and intracranial T-cell responses modulated by the local central nervous system tumor microenvironment. Clin Cancer Res. 2005 Aug 01; 11(15):5515-25. PMID: 16061868.
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    57. Craft N, Bruhn KW, Nguyen BD, Prins R, Liau LM, Collisson EA, De A, Kolodney MS, Gambhir SS, Miller JF. Bioluminescent imaging of melanoma in live mice. J Invest Dermatol. 2005 Jul; 125(1):159-165. PMID: 15982316; PMCID: PMC4141554.
    58. Prins RM, Liau LM. Cellular immunity and immunotherapy of brain tumors. Front Biosci. 2004 Sep 01; 9:3124-36. PMID: 15353342.
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    59. Yang I, Kremen TJ, Giovannone AJ, Paik E, Odesa SK, Prins RM, Liau LM. Modulation of major histocompatibility complex Class I molecules and major histocompatibility complex-bound immunogenic peptides induced by interferon-alpha and interferon-gamma treatment of human glioblastoma multiforme. J Neurosurg. 2004 Feb; 100(2):310-9. PMID: 15086239.
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    60. Prins RM, Incardona F, Lau R, Lee P, Claus S, Zhang W, Black KL, Wheeler CJ. Characterization of defective CD4-CD8- T cells in murine tumors generated independent of antigen specificity. J Immunol. 2004 Feb 01; 172(3):1602-11. PMID: 14734741.
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    61. Prins RM, Odesa SK, Liau LM. Immunotherapeutic targeting of shared melanoma-associated antigens in a murine glioma model. Cancer Res. 2003 Dec 01; 63(23):8487-91. PMID: 14679014.
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    62. Prins RM, Graf MR, Merchant RE, Black KL, Wheeler CJ. Thymic function and output of recent thymic emigrant T cells during intracranial glioma progression. J Neurooncol. 2003 Aug-Sep; 64(1-2):45-54. PMID: 12952285.
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    63. Prins RM, Liau LM. Immunology and immunotherapy in neurosurgical disease. Neurosurgery. 2003 Jul; 53(1):144-52; discussion 152-3. PMID: 12823883.
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    64. Graf MR, Prins RM, Poulsen GA, Merchant RE. Contrasting effects of interleukin-2 secretion by rat glioma cells contingent upon anatomical location: accelerated tumorigenesis in the central nervous system and complete rejection in the periphery. J Neuroimmunol. 2003 Jul; 140(1-2):49-60. PMID: 12864971.
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    65. Prins RM, Scott GP, Merchant RE, Graf MR. Irradiated tumor cell vaccine for treatment of an established glioma. II. Expansion of myeloid suppressor cells that promote tumor progression. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2002 Jun; 51(4):190-9. PMID: 12012106.
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    66. Graf MR, Prins RM, Hawkins WT, Merchant RE. Irradiated tumor cell vaccine for treatment of an established glioma. I. Successful treatment with combined radiotherapy and cellular vaccination. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2002 Jun; 51(4):179-89. PMID: 12012105.
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